ISSN 2398-2969      

Staining technique: Diffquik

Clapis
Contributor(s):

Lesa Thompson

Anna Meredith

Synonym(s): Diff-Quik


Introduction

  • Histologic stain.
  • Rapid technique.
  • Differentiates cell types, including blood and tissue preparations.
  • Commercial Romanowsky stain variant, modified Wright Giemsa stain.
  • Variants of Romanowsky stain differ in degree of oxidation of methylene blue stain prior to precipitation.

Uses

  • In-house cytological staining of various smears or touch preparation slides, including blood, urine, feces, fine needle aspirates (FNA)   Cytology: fine needle aspirate  or swabs from various tissues, dermatological tape-strip samples.
  • May also be used to stain paraffin sections (not covered here).
  • Sufficient quality for differential WBC count   Hematology: leukocyte (WBC)  and screening for morphologic abnormalities.
  • Primarily stains for cytoplasmic detail.
  • Staining results in pink cytoplasm and blue nucleus.
  • Extracellular material, e.g. ground substance, and microbiological agents, eg bacteria and fungi, are stained.

Advantages

  • Rapid procedure.
  • Rapid interpretation of results.
  • Optimal hematology stain.
  • Consistently reliable.
  • Excellent cytologic detail.
  • Useful for immediate interpretation of FNA biopsies.
  • Selective increase in eosinophilic or basophilic staining (by varying time in stain solutions).
  • Differential stain which will show most dermatopathological cells.

Disadvantages

  • Non-diagnostic if used on thick smears/tissue films.
  • Presence of excessive stained extracellular material may obscure cellular definition.
  • May result in over-staining of nuclear material and blurring of chromatin detail.

Requirements

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Procedure

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Ellis R (2012) Diff-Quick (Diff-Quik) Staining Protocol. In:IHC World Life Science Products & Services. Website:www.ihcworld.com/_protocols/special_stains/diff_quick_ellis.htm. Last accessed 13th October 2012.
  • The Royal Veterinary College (2012) DiffQuik Staining Procedure. In:Diagnosis in Dermatology. Website:www.rvc.ac.uk/review/Dermatology/Tests/Diffquik.htm. Last accessed 13th October 2012.
  • VWR International LLC (2012) Material Safety Data Sheet - Diff Quick Set. Website:https://us.vwr.com/stibo/hi_res/47733-150.pdf. Last accessed 13th October 2012.
  • Jenkins J R (2006) Clinical Pathology. In:Manual of Rabbit Medicine and Surgery. 2nd edn. Eds: Meredith A & Flecknell P. BSAVA, Gloucester. pp 45-51.
  • Thrall M A, Baker D C et al (2004) Veterinary Hematology and Clinical Chemistry. Blackwell Publishing, Iowa.

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