ISSN 2398-2969      

Blood biochemistry: glucose

Clapis
Contributor(s):


Overview

  • Physiological plasma levels of glucose are maintained by glucagon (raises glucose) and insulin (lowers glucose) to ensure that a continuous supply of glucose is available as an energy source for cell metabolism.
  • Absorbed via small intestine.
  • Stored as glycogen in liver and muscle and liberated when plasma levels fall.
  • Other hormones can raise plasma glucose by increasing gluconeogenesis or glycogenolysis or increasing/decreasing utilization.
  • Any condition which affects these hormones will influence plasma glucose levels.
  • Hypoinsulinism (diabetes mellitus)   →   hyperglycemia.
  • Epinephrine (adrenaline), cortisol, growth hormone, progesterone   →   increase glucose levels.

Sampling

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Tests

Methodologies

Screening
  • Dextrostix used with whole blood only, gives a semiquantitative indicator of gross changes in plasma glucose.
  • In-house glucometers (calibrated for dogs and cats) may be used but are not calibrated for rabbits.

Specific assays

  • Glucose oxidase reaction - results said to approach true glucose value under reliable laboratory conditions.
  • Ortho-toluidine - also measures galactose and mannose, but these are considered insignificant; simple, fast test.

Non-specific assays

  • Nelson-Somogyi and Folin-Wu - may give slightly higher than true levels, the former more specific than the latter.
  • Ferricyanide - approaches true glucose level.

Technique (intrinsic) limitations

  • Some laboratory methods affected by presence of enzyme inhibitors/activators.

Result Data

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Harcourt-Brown F M & Harcourt-Brown S (2012) Clinical values of blood glucose measurement in pet rabbits. Vet Rec 170 (26), 674 PubMed.
  • Benson K G & Paul-Murphy J (1999) Clinical pathology of the domestic rabbit: acquisition and interpretation of samples. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract (3), 539-552 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Varga M (2014) Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. 2nd edn. Butterworth Heinemann Elsevier, USA.
  • Wesche P (2014) Clinical Pathology. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine. Eds: Meredith A & Lord B. BSAVA, UK.
  • Harcourt-Brown F M & Harcourt-Brown S (2012) Clinical Value of Blood Glucose Measurement in Pet Rabbits. Vet Rec 170, 26.
  • Fudge A M (1999) Laboratory Medicine. Avian and Exotic Pets. W B Saunders Co. ISBN 0721 676 790.

MEMBER BENEFIT

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code