ISSN 2398-2969      

Gabapentin

Clapis

Introduction

Name

  • Gabapentin.

Class of drug

  • Analgesic and anti-epileptic drug (GABA[gamma-aminobutyric acid] agonist) - analog of GABA.

Description

Chemical name

  • 1-(aminomethyl) cyclohexaneacetic acid.

Molecular formula

  • C9H17NO2.

Molecular weight

  • 171.24.

Physical properties

  • White to off-white crystalline solid that is freely soluble in water.

Storage requirements

  • Store at room temperature.
  • Liquid form store in refrigerator.

Uses

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Indications

  • Adjunctive treatment of generalized seizures Seizures that are considered refractory to phenobarbitone and potassium bromide.
  • Adjunctive gabapentin therapy will reduce frequency of generalized seizures in over approximately 45% of idiopathic epileptic dogs refractory to phenobarbitone and potassium bromide therapy.
  • Adjunctive treatment of partial seizures with or without secondary generalization not satisfactorily controlled with other anti-epileptics.
  • Management of neuropathic pain. Studies in guinea pigs have demonstrated its efficacy to control this kind of pain.
  • Management of chronic pain.
  • Advocated for control of musculoskeletal pain.
  • Therapy with gabapentin should be withdrawn gradually to prevent rebound pain.
  • It should be used with caution in animals with renal problem, hepatic disease and behavioral abnormalities.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

With other drugs

  • None confirmed with any other anti-convulsants but it may prolong half-life of felbamate by 50% when the two drugs are used together.
  • Oral clearance may decrease when given with cimetidine Cimetidine.

With diagnostic tests

  • Can give false positive urine protein tests (human data).
  • May also give rise to altered liver function tests in humans. Not known in guinea pigs.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Aghighi S A, Tipoid A, Piechotta M, Lewczuk P & Kastner S (2012) Assessment of the effects of adjunctive gabapentin on postoperative pain after intervertebral disc surgery in dogs. VAA 39 (6), 636-646 PubMed.
  • Plessas I N, Rusbridge C, Driver C J et al (2012) Long term outcome of Cavalier King Charles Spaniel dogs with clinical signs associated with Chiari-like malformation and syringomyelia. Vet Rec 171 (20), 501 PubMed.
  • Wagner A E, Mich P M, Uhrig S R & Hellyer P (2010) Clinical evaluation of perioperative administration of gabapentin as an adjunct for post-operative analgesia in dogs undergoing amputation of a forelimb. JAVMA 236 (7), 751-775 PubMed.
  • Pypendop B H, Siao K T & Ilkiw J E (2010) Thermal antinociceptive effect of orally administered gabapentin in healthy cats. Am J Vet Res 71 (9), 1027-1032 PubMed.
  • Reid P, Pypendop B H & Ilkiw J E (2010) The effects of intravenous gabapentin administration on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in cats. Anaesth Analg 111 (3), 633-637 PubMed.
  • Cashmore R G, Harcourt-Brown T R, Freeman P M & Jeffery N D (2009) Clinical diagnosis and treatment of suspected neuropathic pain in three dogs. Aust Vet J 87 (1), 45-50 PubMed.
  • Fox A, Gentry C, Patel S et al (2003) Comparative activity of the anti-convulsants oxcarbazepine, carbamazepine, lamotrigine and gabapentin in a model of neuropathic pain in the rat and guinea pig. Pain 105 (1-2), 355-362 PubMed.
  • Hachad H, Ragueneau-Majlessi I & Levy R H (2002) New antiepileptic drugs: review on drug interactions. Therapeut Drug Monitoring 24 (1), 91-103 PubMed.
  • Jensen A A, Mosbacher J, Elg S et al (2002) The anticonvulsant gabapentin (neurontin) does not act through gamma-aminobutyric acid-B receptors. Molec Pharmacol 61 (6), 1377-1384 PubMed.
  • Radulovic L L, Turck D, Von Hodenberg A et al (1995) Disposition of gabapentin (neurontin) in mice, rats, dogs, and monkeys. Drug Metab Dispos 23 (4), 441-448 PubMed.
  • Petrere J A & Anderson J A (1994) Developmental toxicity studies in mice, rats and rabbits with the anticonvulsant gabapentin. Fundam Applied Toxicol  23 (4), 585-589 PubMed.

Other Sources Of Information

  • Quesenberry K E, Orcutt C J, Mans C & Carpenter J W (2021) Ferrets, rabbits and Rodents Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 4th edn. Elsevier, USA.
  • Meredith A & hedley J (2020) Ed BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 10th edn. BSAVA, UK. pp 338.
  • Plumb D (2015) Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley Blackwell. pp 1296.
  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.
  • US Food & Drug Administration (FDA) Questions and Answers on FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). Website: www.fda.gov.
  • Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) Adverse Reaction Reporting. Website: www.vmd.defra.gov.uk.

Organisation(s)

RELATED CONTENT

Cimetidine

Seizures

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