ISSN 2398-2969      

Testis: neoplasia - overview

Clapis

Synonym(s): Testicular cancer, testicular tumors


Introduction

  • Testicular tumors are found rarely in rabbits.
  • Four types of testicular neoplasia have been described in rabbits:
    • Seminomas.
    • Sertoli cell tumors.
    • Interstitial cell tumors (of which Leydig cell tumors are the most common variety).
    • Teratomas.
  • They can be non-functional or hormone secreting (functional).
  • Neoplasms of different tumor types can occur simultaneously in both testes.
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Cause

  • Primary testicular neoplasia.

Signs

  • Enlargement of one or both testes; contralateral testis may be small.
  • Change in gait if testicles enlarged.
  • Change in consistency of one or both testes.
  • Behavioral changes may be noted with hormone secreting tumors.
  • Weight loss.
  • Reproductive failure.
  • On rare occasions scrotal skin necrosis and/or gynecomastia.

Diagnosis

  • Clinical signs.
  • Ultrasonography.
  • Histopathological examination.

Treatment

  • Bilateral orchidectomy.
  • If surgery not an option, palliative care.

Prognosis

  • Good to excellent with no lung metastases on thoracic radiography and complete excision.

Presentation

  • Unilateral or bilateral swelling of testes.
  • Change of texture in one or both testes.
  • Change in libido.
  • In some cases, there may be no gross evidence of neoplasia.

Incidence

  • Entire males.
  • Rabbits with undescended testicles present as higher risk.
  • Higher incidence in older rabbits.

Mortality

  • Low.

Cost

  • Low - cost of surgical castration with possible histopathology.

Cause

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prognosis

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Prevention

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Finkelstein A & Cassone L (2007) Testicular interstitial cell neoplasia in a rabbit. Exotic DVM (3), 15-16.
  • Maratea K A, Ramos-Vara J A, Corriveau L A et al (2007) Testicular interstitial cell tumour and gynecomastia in a rabbit. Vet Pathol 44 (4), 513-517 PubMed.
  • Capello V (2006) Surgical techniques for orchiectomy of the pet rabbit. Exotic DVM (5), 23-32.
  • Heatley J J & Smith A N (2004) Spontaneous neoplasm of lagomorphs. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract (3), 561-77 PubMed.
  • Marino F, Ferrara G, Rapisarda G et al (2003) Reinke's crystals in an interstitial cell tumor of a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Reprod Domest Anim 38 (5), 421-422 PubMed.
  • Roccabianca P, Ghisleni G & Scanziani E (1999) Simultaneous seminoma and interstitial cell tumor in a rabbit with a previous cutaneous basal cell tumour. J Comp Pathol 121 (1), 95-99 PubMed.
  • Anderson W I, Car B D, Kenny K et al (1990) Bilateral testicular seminoma in a New Zealand White Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Lab Anim Sci 40 (4), 420-421 PubMed.
  • Brown P J & Stafford R A (1989) A testicular seminoma in a rabbit. J Comp Pathol 100 (3), 353-355 PubMed.
  • Zwicker G M & Killinger J M (1985) Interstitial cell tumors in a young adult New Zealand White rabbit. Toxicol Pathol 13 (3), 232-235 PubMed.
  • Flatt R E & Weisbroth S H (1974) Interstitial cell tumor of the testicle in rabbits: a report of two cases. Lab Anim Sci 24 (4), 682-685 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Kaphake E & Paul-Murphy J (2012) Disorders of the Reproductive and Urinary systems. In: Ferrets, Rabbits & Rodents: Clin Med & Surg. 3rd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Elsevier Saunders, St Louis.
  • Easson W & Veella D (2011) Testicular Tumours. In: Blackwell's Five-Minute Vet Consults: Small Mammal.Wiley-Blackwell, Iowa.
  • Reusch B (2006) Urogenital System and Disorders. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine and Surgery. Ed: Meredith A & Flecknell P. BSAVA, Gloucester. pp 94.
  • Saunders R A & Rees Davies R (2005) Notes on Rabbit Internal Medicine. Blackwell, Oxford. pp 165.
  • Reavill D R & Schmidt R E (2000) Rabbit Surgical Pathology. In: Laboratory Medicine: Avian and Exotic Pets. Ed: Fudge A M. W B Saunders, Philadelphia. pp 356.
  • Ness R D (1998) Neoplasia in Rabbits and Guinea Pigs. In: Proc North Am Vet Conf. pp 853-854.
  • Stein S & Walshaw S (1996) Rabbits. In: Handbook of Rodent and Rabbit Medicine. Eds: Laber-Laird, Swindle & Flecknell P. Elsevier, Oxford. pp 197.
  • Weisbroth S H (1994) The Biology of the Laboratory Rabbit. Eds: Manning P J, Ringler D A & Newcomer C E.
  • Richardson V C G (2000) The Reproductive System. In: Rabbits: Health, Husbandry and diseases. Blackwell, Oxford. pp 44. Website:http://www.amazon.co.uk/Rabbits-Health-Husbandry-Disease-diseases/dp/063205221X#reader_063205221X.

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