ISSN 2398-2969      

Skin: pyoderma

Clapis

Introduction

  • Pyoderma is a bacterial infection of the skin.
  • It is a common finding in pet rabbits and is often due to underlying causes such as ptyalism, urine scalding, epiphora, bite wounds, infected skin folds and injection reactions.
  • CauseStaphylococcus aureusPseudomonas aeruginosa (blue fur disease), Pasteurella multocida and Fusobacterium necrophorum.
  • Signs: papules, pustules, bacterial infection of dermal and subcuticular tissues, alopecia, swelling, erythema, ulceration, abscessation and necrosis.
  • Diagnosis: history, clinical signs, microscopy, bacterial culture and histopathology.
  • Treatment: hair clipping, cleaning the affected skin, topical and systemic antimicrobials, analgesia, control of underlying conditions.
  • Prognosis: good if the condition is not severe and the predisposing factors can be managed or treated.
Print off the Owner factsheet on Pyoderma - bacterial skin infection to give to your clients.


Presenting signs

  • Determined by the underlying cause.
  • Three common locations: facial, dewlap, perineal pyoderma.
  • Pododermatitis Ulcerative pododermatitis (Bumble foot) is also a common problem.
  • Alopecia.
  • Erythema.
  • Papules and pustules.
  • Tissue necrosis, ulceration and abscessation.
  • Moist dermatitis Moist dermatitis characterized by a blue/green discoloration of the fur (especially around the dewlap).
  • General debilitation, including lethargy and anorexia Anorexia.

Breed predisposition

  • French Lops French Lop and Giant English Lops English Lop are prone to superficial pyoderma in the large skin folds around the perineum and under the chin.
  • Breeds with dense, long fur such as Dwarf Dwarf Lop, Miniature Lops Miniature Lop and Angora Angora rabbits are more susceptible to perineal dermatitis.

Gender predisposition

  • Female rabbits are more susceptible to dewlap and perineal pyoderma.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Benato L (2019) Guide to skin diseases in rabbits. In Pract 41 (10), 488-497 VetMedResource.
  • Benato L, Stoeckli M R, Smith S H et al (2013) A case of antibacterial-responsive mucocutaneous disease in a seven-year-old dwarf lop rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) resembling mucocutaneous pyoderma of dogs. J Small Anim Pract 54 (4), 209-212 PubMed.
  • Snook T S, White S D, Hawkins M G, Tell L A, Wilson L S, Outerbridge C A & Ihrke P J (2013) Skin diseases in pet rabbits: a retrospective study of 334 cases seen at the University of California at Davis, USA (1984-2004). Vet Dermatol 24, 613-e148 PubMed.
  • White S D, Linder K E, Schultheiss P et al (2000) Sebaceous adenitis in four domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Vet Derm 11 (1), 53-60 VetMedResource.
  • Hermans K, De Herdt P, Devriese L A et al (1999) Colonisation of rabbits with Staphylococcus aureusin flocks with or without chronic staphylococcus. Vet Microbiol 67 (1), 37-46 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2014) Dermatoses. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine. Eds: Meredith A & Lord B. BSAVA, UK. pp 255-263.
  • Varga M (2014) Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. 2nd edn. Butterworth Heinemann Elsevier, UK.
  • Miller W H, Griffin C E & Campbell K L (2013) Dermatoses of Exotic Small Mammals. In: Muller and Kirk’s Small Animal Dermatology. 7th edn. Elsevier, USA. pp 844–887.
  • Kanfer S (2013) Sebaceous Adenitis and its Relationship to Thymomas in Rabbits. In: Proc Association of Exotic Mammal Veterinarians Conference. Sheraton City Centre, Indiana. pp 39-44.
  • Mans C (2013) Skin Diseases. In: Clinical Veterinary Advisor. Birds and Exotic Pets. Eds: Mayer J & Donnelly T M. Elsevier: USA. pp 278-280.
  • D'Ovidio D & Santoro D (2013) Oro-Dental diseases and Dermatological Disorders are Highly Associated in Pet Rabbits: A Case-Control Study. In: Proc Association of Exotic Mammal Veterinarians Conference. Sheraton City Centre, Indiana. pp 37-38.
  • Vella D (2013) Dermatopathies. In: Clinical Veterinary Advisor. Birds and Exotic Pets. Eds: Mayer J & Donnelly T M. Elsevier: USA. pp 360-364.
  • Oglesbee B (2011) Pyoderma. In: Blackwells Five Minute Veterinary Consult - Rodents. Wiley-Blackwell, UK. pp 495-496.
  • Scott D W, Miller W H & Griffin C E (1995) Dermatoses of Pet Rodents, Rabbits and Ferrets. In: Muller and Kirks Small Animal Dermatology. 5th edn. W B Saunders, USA. pp 1127-1174.
  • Wilkinson G T & Harvey R G (1994) Colour Atlas of Small Animal Dermatology. A Guide to Diagnosis. 2nd edn. Mosby-Wolfe, USA.

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