ISSN 2398-2969      

Oral papillomatosis

Clapis

Introduction

  • Cause: oral papillomatosis is caused by a papilloma virus that is antigenically distinct from the Shope Papilloma virus Papilloma virus.
  • Signs: usually none, sometimes signs of oral discomfort.
  • Diagnosis: often clinical appearance alone.
  • Treatment: none required in most cases.
  • Prognosis: good, since most lesions spontaneously regress.

Presenting signs

  • Small papillomas (usually 1-2 mm diameter) in the oral cavity, often on the ventral aspect of the tongue.
  • One report describes lesions up to 10 mm diameter behind the mandibular incisors.
  • Other clinical signs are usually not apparent, and lesions are detected incidentally or at post mortem examination Post-mortem technique.

Geographic incidence

  • Reported in North and South America, The Netherlands and Great Britain.

Age predisposition

  • Infection occurs most frequently in rabbits between 2-18 months of age.

Breed predisposition

​Cost considerations

  • Inexpensive: lesions do not usually cause clinical signs, and treatment or removal is not indicated.
  • Moderate cost if surgical removal is necessary.

Special risks

  • Large papillomas may possibly interfere with intubation or become traumatized and hemorrhage during dental procedures.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Maglennon G A & Doorbar J (2012) The biology of papillomavirus latency. Open Virol 6, 190-197 PubMed.
  • Maglennon G A, McIntosh P & Doorbar J (2011) Persistence of viral DNA in the epithelial basal layer suggests a model for papillomavirus latency following immune regression. Virology 414 (2), 153-163 PubMed.
  • Gambhira R, Jagu S, Karanam B et al (2007) Protection of rabbits against challenge with rabbit papillomaviruses by immunization with the N. terminus of human papillomavirus type 16 minor capsid antigen L2. J Virol 81 (21), 11585-11592 PubMed.
  • Krogstad A R, Simpson J E & Korte S W (2005) Viral diseases of rabbits. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract (1), 123-138 PubMed.
  • Sundberg J P & Everitt J I (1986) Diagnostic exercise: lingual growths in rabbits. Lab Anim Sci 36 (5), 499-500 PubMed.
  • Sundberg J P, Junge R E, el Shazly M O et al (1985) Oral papillomatosis in New Zealand white rabbits. Am J Vet Res 46 (3), 664-668 PubMed.
  • Dominguez J A, Corella E L, Auró A (1981) Oral papillomatosis in two laboratory rabbits in Mexico. Lab Anim Sci 31 (1), 71-73 PubMed.
  • Weisbroth S H (1975) Sialocele (ranula) simulating oral papillomatosis in a domestic (oryctolagus) rabbitLab Anim Sci 25 (3), 321-322 PubMed.
  • Mews A R, Ritchie J S, Romero-Mercado C H et al (1972) Detection of oral papillomatosis in a British rabbit colony. Lab Anim (2), 141-145 PubMed.
  • Weisbroth S H & Scher S (1970) Spontaneous oral papillomatosis in rabbits. JAVMA 157 (11), 1940-1944 PubMed.
  • Rdzok E J, Shipkowitz N L, Richter W R et al (1966) Rabbit oral papillomatosis - ultrastructure of experimental infection. Cancer Res 26 (1), 160-165 PubMed.
  • Richter W R, Shipkowitz N L, Rdzok E J (1964) Oral papillomatosis of the rabbit: An electron microscopic study. Lab Invest 13, 430-438 PubMed.
  • Parsons R J & Kidd J G (1943) Oral papillomatosis of rabbits: a virus disease. J Exp Med 77 (3), 233-250 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Delaney M A, Treuting P M & Rothenburger J L (2018) Lagomorpha. In: Pathology of Wildlife and Zoo Animals. Eds: Terio K A, McAloose D & Leger J S. Academic Press, UK. pp 481-497.
  • Jekl V (2013) The Dental Examination. In: BSAVA Manual Rabbit Surgery, Dentistry and Imaging. Eds: Harcourt-Brown F & Chitty J. BSAVA, UK. pp 337-348.

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