ISSN 2398-2969      

Kidney: disease

Clapis

Synonym(s): Renal disease


Introduction

  • Renal disease common.
  • Diagnosis:
    • Complicated as serum biochemistry changes less useful owing to insensitivity of urea/creatinine (latter especially) as a diagnostic indicator in herbivores.
    • Serum biochemical changes only seen after 50-70% renal function lost.
    • Differential diagnosis of azotemia (other than renal-related):
      • Time-related changes; peak levels late afternoon/early evening.
      • Breed-related: higher in Polish.
      • Does > bucks in New Zealand Whites.
      • Dehydration/water deprivation.
      • Shock.
      • Stress.
      • Cardiac disease.
      • High protein diet.
      • Gastrointestinal hemorrhage, or diarrhea.
      • Generalized catabolic state.
      • Post-renal urinary tract obstruction or rupture.
    • Creatinine levels more specific for renal failure, but less sensitive. Older samples (>24 h) may have artificially lowered creatinine level.
    • Calcium and phosphate levels may be lowered or raised dependent on calcium/phosphate content of diet, ie renal disease reduces ability of body to compensate for dietary levels.
  • Prognosis: non-regenerative anemia seen in renal failure as in other species, but may also be present due to other causes of chronic pain/disease.
Print off the Owner factsheet on Kidney problems to give to your clients.

 

Presenting signs

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Varga Smith M (2021) Diagnosing and treating urinary tract disease in rabbits. In Practice 43 (3), 143-151.
  • Reavill D R, Lennox A M (2020) Disease overview of the urinary tract in exotic companion mammals and tips on clinical management. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 23 (1), 169-193.
  • Harcourt-Brown, F M (2013) Diagnosis of renal disease in rabbits. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 16 (1), 145-174
  • Reusch B, Murray J K, Papasouliotis K et al (2009) Urinary protein:creatinine ratio in rabbits in relation to their serological status to Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Vet Rec 164 (10), 293-295 PubMed.
  • Harcourt-Brown F (2007) Radiographic signs of renal disease in rabbits. Vet Rec 160 (23), 787-794 PubMed.
  • van den Buuse M & Malpas S C (1997) 24-hour recordings of blood pressure, heart rate, and behavioural activity in rabbits by radiotelemetry: effects of feeding and hypertension. Physiology & Behaviour 62 (1), 83-89 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Varga M (2014) Urogenital Diseases. In: Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. Butterworth Heinemann, UK. pp 405-424.
  • Klaphake E & Paul-Murphy J (2012) Disorders of the Reproductive and Urinary Systems. In: Ferrets Rabbits and Rodents: Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds: Quesenberry & Carpenter. Elsevier.
  • Oglesbee B L (2011) Blackwells Five-Minute Veterinary Consult: Small Mammal. 2nd edn. Wiley-Blackwell, USA.
  • Fisher P G (2006) Exotic Mammal Renal Disease: Causes and Clinical Presentation. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract. pp 33-68.
  • Fisher P G (2006) Exotic Mammal Renal Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract. pp 69-96.
  • Jenkins J R (2006) Clinical Pathology. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine and Surgery. 2nd edn. BSAVA, UK.
  • Reusch B (2006) Urogenital System and Disorders. In: BSAVA Manual of rabbit Medicine and Surgery. 2nd edn. BSAVA, UK.
  • Saunders R A & Rees Davies R (2005) Notes on Rabbit Internal Medicine. Blackwell, UK.
  • Girling S (2003) Preliminary Study into the Possible Use of Benazepril on the Management of Renal Disease in Rabbits. In: Proc British Veterinary Zoological Society. pp 44.

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