ISSN 2398-2969      

Hypercalcemia

Clapis

Introduction

  • Cause: diet, tumor (eg thymoma), chronic renal failure, impaired calcium excretion, vitamin D toxicity.
  • Signs: calciuria, renal disease, arteriosclerosis, urolithiasis.
  • Diagnosis: biochemistry, radiography.
  • Treatment: reduced calcium intake, fluid therapy.
  • Prognosis: depends on cause.

Presenting signs

  • Thick, white urine (urinary sludge).
  • Unspecific signs as a consequence of the underlying or associated cause (urolithiasis, thymoma, renal failure, etc):

Age predisposition

  • Serum calcium concentrations are not as variable in growing rabbits as in mature rabbits.
  • Immature rabbits on forced high dietary calcium concentrations do not develop soft tissue calcification like their adult counterparts.

Special risks, eg anesthetic

Print off the Owner Factsheet on Hypocalcaemia and hypercalcaemia to give to your clients.
 

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Eckermann-Ross C (2008) Hormonal regulation and calcium metabolism in the rabbit. Vet Clin Exot Anim 11 (1), 139-152 PubMed.
  • Redrobe S (2002) Calcium metabolism in rabbits. Semin Avian Exotic Pet Med 11 (2), 94-101 ScienceDirect.
  • Norris S A, Pettifor J M, Gray D A et al (2001) Calcium metabolism and bone mass in female rabbits during skeletal maturation: effects of dietary calcium intake. Bone 29 (1), 62-69 PubMed
  • Kamphues J (1991) Calcium metabolism of rabbits as an etiological factor for urolithiasis. J Nutr 121 (11 Suppl), S95-96 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Harcourt Brown F (2014) Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. 2nd edn. Ed: Varga M. Butterworth Heinemann, UK. pp 482.
  • Oglesbee B L (2006) Polyuria and Polydipsia. In: The 5-Minute Veterinary Consult. Blackwell Publishing. pp 326-327.
  • Rosenthal K L (2006) Calcium Metabolism in Rabbits: Whats New? In: Proc North America Veterinary Conference
  • Harcourt-Brown F (2002) Clinical Pathology. In: Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. Butterworth & Heinemann. pp 140-164.

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