ISSN 2398-2969      

Eye: uveitis

Clapis

Synonym(s): Intra-ocular inflammation


Introduction

  • Significance: intra-ocular inflammation is relatively common; it can be blinding and may signal Pasteurella or Encephalitozoon involvement.
  • Cause: corneal insult, bacteria including Pasteurella spp Pasteurella multocida or the microsporidian parasite E. cuniculi Encephalitozoon cuniculi, secondary to severe keratitis or corneal ulceration.
  • Signs: miosis, anterior chamber flare, keratitic precipitates, hypopyon, ocular redness or white mass in the iris with or without neovascularization or a panophthalmitis with yellow-white purulent material filling the anterior chamber.
  • Diagnosis: ophthalmoscopy, aqueous paracentesis.
  • Treatment: depends on cause: topical steroids or NSAIDs, topical atropine, fenbendazole for E. cuniculi-associated blindness, enucleation.
  • Prognosis: guarded - can lead to blindness.

Presentation

  • Acute: red eye.

Morbidity

  • Age: generally <2 years if E. cuniculi.

Public Health

  •  E. cuniculi is zoonotic - risk for immunocompromised people.

Cost

  • Moderate: if Pasteurella-associated uveitis is diagnosed and enucleation Enucleation: transconjunctival is required.
  • Inexpensive: if idiopathic uveitis is diagnosed and topical steroid is the only treatment given.
  • Expensive: diagnosis may be expensive; inexpensive if empirical treatment given.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Wagner F & Fehr M (2007) Common ophthalmic problems in pet rabbits. J Exotic Pet Med 16 (3), 158-167 VetMedResource.
  • Kern T J (1997) Rabbit and rodent ophthalmology. Semin Avian Exotic Pet Med 6 (3), 138-145 ScienceDirect.
  • Stiles J, Didier E, Ritchie B et al (1997) Encephalitozoon cuniculi in the lens of a rabbit with phacoclastic uveitis: confirmation and treatment. Vet Comp Ophthalmol 7 (4), 233-238 VetMedResource.
  • Hillyer E V (1994) Pet rabbits. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 24 (1), 25-65 PubMed.
  • Wolfer J, Grahn B & Wilcock B (1992) Spontaneous lens rupture in the rabbit. Vet Pathol 29, 478.
  • Bauck L (1989) Ophthalmic conditions in pet rabbits and rodents. Comp Contin Educ Pract Vet 11 (3), 258-261, 264-266 VetMedResource.
  • Kaswan R L, Kaplan H J, Martin C L (1988) Topically applied cyclosporine for modulation of induced immunogenic uveitis in rabbits. Am J Vet Res 49 (10), 1757-1759 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Knott T (2014) Ophthalmology. In: Manual of Rabbit Medicine. Eds: Meredith A & Lord B. BSAVA. pp 232-254.
  • Varga M (2014) Ophthalmic Disease. In: Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. 2nd edn. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford. pp 350-366.
  • Williams D (2012) The Rabbit Eye. In: Ophthalmology of Exotic Pets. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester. pp 15-55.

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