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  • Dyspnea is defined as difficult or labored breathing and is most often associated with diseases of the respiratory tract. However, other primary causes of dyspnea may include extra-pulmonary causes including heart disease, expansive abdominal diseases such as gastric bloat, and dental disease.

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Further Reading


Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
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Other sources of information

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  • Exotic Pet Practice. Veterinary Clinics of North America. Published by W B Saunders, Philadelphia.

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