ISSN 2398-2969      

Bladder: ultrasonographic examination

Clapis

Introduction

Uses

  • Ultrasonography has been reported to have been helpful in the diagnosis of a number of diseases in the rabbit.

Advantages

  • Ultrasonography is a straightforward technique since most rabbits are easily restrained.
  • The potential for manual restraint has obvious advantages over radiography, for which sedation is usually required.

Disadvantages

  • Interpretation can be difficult, especially if the bladder is empty.

Technical problems

  • Probe footplates need to be small and high quality, high frequency probes are needed.

Alternative techniques

Decision taking

Criteria for choosing test

  • Investigation of bladder disease, eg hematuria, dysuria.
  • Ultrasound-guided cystocentesis.

Risk assessment

  • If sedation or anesthesia are required, morbidity and mortality increase.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Di Girolamo N, Bongiovanni L, Ferro S et al (2017) Cystoscopic diagnosis of polypoid cystitis in two pet rabbits. JAVMA 251 (1), 84-84 PubMed.

Other sources of information

 

  • Di Girolamo N & Selleri P (2021) Disorders of the Urinary and Reproductive Systems. In: Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents Clinical Medicine and Surgery. Eds: Quesenberry K E, Orcutt C J, Mans C & Carpenter J W. Elsevier, USA. pp: 201-219.
  • Keeble E & Benato L (2013) Urinary Tract Surgery. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Surgery, Dentistry and Imaging. Eds: Harcourt-Brown F & Chitty J. BSAVA, UK. pp 190-211.
  • Redrobe S (2013) Ultrasonography. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Surgery, Dentistry and Imaging. Eds: Harcourt-Brown F & Chitty J. BSAVA, UK. pp 94-106.

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