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Patellar luxation

Clapis

Synonym(s): Luxating patella, Dislocated patella, Dislocated kneecap


Introduction

  • Cause: most likely genetic/developmental changes in the area.
  • Signs: acute or intermittent onset of hind limb lameness.
  • Diagnosis: physical manipulation and radiography.
  • Treatment: medical for grade II luxations; surgical for grades III and IV.
  • Prognosis: good.
Patellar luxation describes the medial or lateral displacement of the patella from the femoral trochlear sulcus. This condition in rabbits resembles patellar luxation in dogs. Print off the Client factsheet on Patellar luxation to give to your clients.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • As in most dogs, patellar luxation in rabbits is considered a developmental disease due to genetic and developmental changes that lead to malalignment of the quadriceps mechanism.
  • Traumatic patellar luxation also occurs (both in dogs and in rabbits), but it is uncommon.
  • Most cases described in rabbits have had medial luxation (in dogs, 98% of cases present with medial luxation).

Femoropatellar joint

  • Formed by the articulation between the patella and the trochlear groove of the femur.
  • It is functionally classified as a gliding joint.
  • Similar to the joint of dogs and cats, but more comparable to the cat.
  • The groove is flatter than in dogs and cats.
  • It is in flexion (45°) when standing, while the dog (119-144°) and cat (107-144°) stifles are in extension.

Predisposing factors

Specific

  • Genetic/developmental skeletal deformities in young rabbits.

Epidemiology

  • The prevalence of patellar luxation in rabbits presented for veterinary care may be around 0.5%. It is therefore an uncommon condition.
  • Only a few cases have been described in the scientific literature.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Guillier D, Decambron A, Desprez I et al (2021) Patellar luxation in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus): 6 cases (2017-2020). J Exotic Pet Med 36, 62-67 SciDirect.
  • Hyde E W, Eshar D, Wright L et al (2019) Surgical correction of grade III medial patellar luxation in a pet rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). J Exotic Pet Med 31, 45-48 SciDirect.
  • Di Dona F, Della Valle G & Fatone G (2018) Patellar luxation in dogs. Vet Med Res Report 9, 23-32 PubMed.
  • Riggs J & Langley-Hobbs S J (2013) Surgical correction of patellar luxation in a rabbit. Case Reports Vet Med e254354 Hindawi.

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Patellar luxation

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