ISSN 2398-2969      

Anorectal papilloma

Clapis

Introduction

  • Cause: benign, well differentiated epithelial tumor of the anorectal junction. Origin not well understood. These growths are not associated with papilloma virus (infectious papillomas in rabbits) and have not been shown to be transmissible.
  • Signs: cauliflower-like growth protruding from the anus. Can cause discomfort, tenesmus, prolapse. May bleed profusely if damaged.
  • Diagnosis: often diagnosed by appearance alone. Histology required for confirmation.
  • Treatment: spontaneous regression is possible. Surgical excision, radiosurgical excision, laser destruction, cryosurgery.
  • Prognosis: good if regress or can be excised entirely. Recurrence common if base of tumor not fully removed.
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Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Not associated with papilloma virus.

Pathophysiology

  • Benign, well differentiated epithelial tumor of the rectal squamous columnar epithelium at the anorectal junction.

Timecourse

  • Slow-growing tumor; may spontaneously regress.

Epidemiology

  • Transmission experiments have been unsuccessful.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • van Zeeland Y (2017) Rabbit oncology. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 20 (1), 135-182 PubMed.
  • Reusch B (2005) Rabbit gastroenterology. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 8 (2), 351-375 SciDirect.

Other sources of information

  • Quesenberry K E, Orcutt C J, Mans C & Carpenter J W (2021) Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 4th edn. Elsevier, USA.
  • Varga M (2014) Skin Diseases. In: Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. 2nd edn. Butterworth Heinemann, UK. pp 271-302.
  • Meredith A (2013) Anorectal Papilloma. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Surgery, Dentistry and Imaging. Eds: Harcourt-Brown F & Chitty J. BSAVA, UK. pp 254-256.

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