ISSN 2398-2969      

Passalurus ambiguus

Clapis

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Class: Nematoda.
  • Order: Oxyurida.
  • Superfamily: Oxyuroidae.
  • Family: Oxyuridae.
  • Genus:Passalurus.
  • Species:ambiguus.

Etymology

  • Worldwide.

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Lifecycle

  • Entire direct life cycle takes place in the host species (rabbit).

Transmission

  • Feco-oral route.
  • Coprophagia appears to amplify disease in other species.

Pathological effects

  • Often minimal.
  • Passalurusis very commonly found in high numbers within the cecum and proximal colon.
  • Potentially a contributory factor in enteritis and diarrhea seen around weaning.
  • Some authors have reported occasionally findingPassalurusassociated with granulomas of the intestinal wall.
  • May cause anal irritation   →   self-trauma and rectal prolapse.

Control

Control via animal

  • Individual treatment rarely necessary, but fenbendazole   Fenbendazole   is effective at reducing parasite numbers.
  • Eradication from a colony could be attempted by repeated dosing of all rabbits with fenbendazole, but due to constant re-infection by cecotrophy and coprophagy, this approach would be difficult.

Control via environment

  • Adequate standards of husbandry and hygiene will reduce the risk of excessively high parasite burdens.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Sayers I (2010) Approach to preventive health care and welfare in rabbits. In Pract 32 (5), 190-198 VetMedResource.
  • Rinaldi L, Russo T, Schioppi M et al (2007) Passalurus ambiguus: new insights into copromicroscopic diagnosis and circadian rhythm of egg excretion. Parsitol Res 101 (3), 557-561 PubMed.
  • Hobbs R P, Twigg L E, Elliot A D et al (1999) Factors influencing the fecal egg and oocyst counts of parasites of wild European rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.) in Southern Western Australia. J Parasitol 85 (5), 796-802 PubMed.
  • Morrisey J K (1996) Parasites of ferrets, rabbits and rodents. Semin Avian & Exotic Pet Med (2), 106-114 ScienceDirect.
  • Boag B (1988) Observations on the seasonal incidence of myxomatosis and its interactions with helminth parasites in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). J Wildlife Dis 24 (3), 450-455 PubMed.
  • Düwel D & Brech K (1981) Control of oxyuriasis in rabbits by fenbendazole. Lab Anim 15 (2), 101-105 PubMed.
  • Taffs L F (1976) Pinworm infections in laboratory rodents: A review. Lab Anim 10 (1), 1-13 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Schoeb T R, Cartner S C et al (2007) Parasites of Rabbits. In:  Flynn's Parasites of Laboratory Animals. 2nd edn. Ed: Baker D G. Blackwell Publishing, Iowa. pp 467.
  • Rees Davies R (2006) Digestive System Disorders. In:BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine & Surgery. 2nd edn. Eds: Meredith A & Flecknell P. BSAVA, Gloucester. pp 74-84.
  • Harcourt-Brown F (2002) Infectious diseases of Domestic Rabbits. In:Textbook of Veterinary Medicine. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford. pp 363.
  • Patton S (2000) Rabbit and Ferret Parasite Testing. In: Laboratory Medicine: Avian & Exotic Pets. Ed: Fudge A M. W B Saunders Co, Philadelphia. pp362.
  • Hofing F L & Kraus A L (1994) Arthropod and Helminth Parasites. In:The Biology of the Laboratory Rabbit. 2nd edn. Academic Press Inc, New York. pp 246-247.

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