ISSN 2398-2969      

Herpesvirus

Clapis

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Family: Herpesviridae.
  • Subfamily: Alphaherpesvirinae.
    • GenusSimplexvirus.
    • SpeciesLeporid herpesvirus 4 (LeHV-4) and Human herpesvirus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2).
  • Subfamily: Gammaherpesvirinae.
    • GenusRhadinovirus.
    • SpeciesLeporid herpesvirus 1, 2, 3 and Leporid gammaherpesvirus 5 (LeHV-1, LeHV-2, LeHV-3 and LeHV-5).

Active Forms

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Transmission

  • Route of infection: intranasal, oral or conjunctival.
  • Transmission via lacrimal excretions. 
  • Virus is shed in oronasal secretions from 24 h post-infection and persists 1-3 weeks.
  • Transmitted by direct contact and by short-distance aerosolization through sneezing.
  • Indirect via contaminated food bowls, hands, etc (less important than direct transmission due to virus susceptibility to desiccation, disinfectants, etc).
  • Transmission between humans infected with HHV-1 and rabbits.
  • Co-infection with myxomatosis Myxomatosis (LeHV-5).

Pathological effects

  • Neutralizing antibody recognizes gp60, the viral hemagglutinin, which is essential for attachment to cells.
  • Neutralizing titers are low: 1:16-1:64.
  • Neutralizing antibodies appear 20-30 days post-infection.
  • Infection is life-long, and latently infected animals may still have neutralizing antibodies.
  • Virus growth occurs in the epithelium of the nasal mucosa, conjunctiva, tonsil and nasal turbinates: tissue damage is due to viral cytolysis. Clinical signs of upper respiratory tract disease due to this damage.
  • Encephalitis: presence of intranuclear inclusion bodies in neurons and glial cells.

Control

Control via chemotherapies

  • For ulcerative keratitis: 0.1% ophthalmic solution of 5-iododeoxyuridine 4-6 times daily for 3-5 days (Acyclovir, used for herpes simplex in man, less active against FHV).
  • Broad spectrum antibiotic cover useful against secondary bacterial infection.
  • Good nursing, especially to encourage feeding and supportive treatment.
  • Euthanasia Euthanasia if severe clinical presentation and rapid deterioration.

Control via environment

  • Disinfectant: bleach diluted 1:32 in water with washing-up liquid.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Santos F A Ad, Monteiro M, Pinto A, Carvalho C L, Peleteiro M C et al (2020) First description of a herpesvirus infection in genus Lepus. PLOS ONE 15 (4), e0231795 PLOSONE.
  • Muller K, Fuchs W, Heblinski N et al (2009) Encephalitis in a rabbit caused by human herpesvirus-1. JAVMA 235 (1), 66-69 PubMed
  • Jin L, Löhr C V, Vanarsdall A L et al (2008) Characterization of a novel alphaherpesvirus associated with fatal infections of domestic rabbits. Virology 378 (1), 13-20 PubMed
  • Grest P, Albicker P, Hoelzle L et al (2002) Herpes simplex encephalitis in a domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). J Comp Pathol 126 (4), 308-311 PubMed.
  • Weissenböck H, Hainfellner J A, Berger J et al (1997) Naturally occurring herpes simplex encephalitis in a domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Vet Pathol 34 (1), 44-47 PubMed.
  • Onderka D K, Papp-Vid G & Perry A W (1992) Fatal herpesvirus infection in commercial rabbits. Can Vet J 33 (8), 539-543 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Delaney M A, Treuting P M & Rothenburger J L (2018) Lagomorpha. In: Pathology of Wildlife and Zoo Animals. Eds: Terio K A, McAloose D & St.Leger J. Academic Press, UK. pp 481-497.
  • Roizman B & Pellett P E (2001) The Family Herpesviridae: A Brief Introduction. In: Fields Virology. Eds: Knipe D M & Howley P M. 5th edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp 2381-2397.

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