ISSN 2398-2969      

Clostridium piliforme

Clapis

Synonym(s): Previously bacillus piliformis; Tyzzer's disease


Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Order: Clostridiales.
  • Family: Clostridiaceae.
  • Genus:Clostridium.
  • Species:piliforme.

Until recently classified asBacillus piliformis.

Etymology

  • Greek:Kloster- spindle.

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Bacteria found in intestine of asymptomatic carrier animals, eg rodents and rabbits.

Lifecycle

  • The bacteria replicate within host cells forming spores which, when shed, contaminate the environment and are the infectious agent.
  • The vegetative form is not thought to play a role in transmission.

Transmission

  • Fecal-oral infection assumed.

Pathological effects

Often fatal.

  • Liver most commonly involved   Liver: disease  :
    • Swollen.
    • Multiple areas of hepatocellular necrosis.
    • Infiltrates of neutrophils and mononuclear cells.
    • Necrotizing enterocolitis.

Other Host Effects

  • Tyzzer's disease often triggered by stress:
    • Weaning.
    • Over-crowding.
    • Vaccination (some cases in dogs reported after vaccination).
  • Tyzzer's disease also reported in dogs (and cats) with concurrent immunosuppressive disease, eg distemper.

Control

Control via animal

  • Separation of confirmed clinical cases.

Control via chemotherapies

 

Control via environment

  • Avoid contact with environment contaminated by rodents.

Other countermeasures

  • Reduce stress.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Nicklas W, Baneux P, Boot R et al (2002) Recommendations for the health monitoring of rodent and rabbit colonies in breeding and experimental units.​ Lab Anim 36 (1), 20-42 PubMed.
  • Goto K & Itoh T (1996) Detection of Clostridium piliforme by enzymatic assay of amplified cDNA segment in microtitration plates. Lab Anim Sci 46 (5), 493-496 PubMed.
  • Franklin C L, Motzel S L, Besch-Williford C L et al (1994) Tyzzer's infection: host specificity of Clostridium piliforme isolates. Lab Anim Sci 44 (6), 568-572 PubMed.
  • Lee W K, Fujisawa T, Kawamura S et al (1991) Isolation and identification of clostridia from the intestine of laboratory animals. Lab Anim 25 (1), 9-15 PubMed.
  • Carman R J & Evans R H (1984) Experimental and spontaneous clostridial enteropathies of laboratory and free living lagomorphs. Lab Anim Sci 34 (5), 443-452 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Harkness J E & Wagner J E (1995) The Biology and Medicine of Rabbits and Rodents. 4th edn. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

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