ISSN 2398-2950      

Enrofloxacin

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Introduction

Name

  • Enrofloxacin.

Class of drug

  • Antibiotic.
  • Antimicrobial.
  • Fluoroquinolone.

Description

Chemical name

  • 1-cyclopropyl-7-(4-ethyl-1-piperazinyl)-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid.

Molecular formula

  • C19H22FN3O3.

Storage requirements

  • <30°C.
  • In a dry environment.

Uses

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Indications

  • Gram-negative infectionsPseudomonas aeruginosaKlebsiella spp, Escherichia coli  Escherichia coliProteus spp  Proteus spp and Salmonella spp Salmonella spp.
  • Some Pseudomonas spp, depending on site of infection and dose used.
  • Other infectionsBrucella spp, Chlamydia spp, Mycoplasma spp, Staphylococcus spp   Staphylococcus sppPasturella spp Pasteurella multocida and some Mycobacteria spp   Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  • Enrofloxacin is effective against many beta-lactamase producing bacteria.
  • The fluoroquinolones are highly lipophilic drugs which attain high concentrations within the cells of many tissues and are particularly effective in the management of soft tissue, urogenital and skin infections.
    Not effective against anaerobic infections, Streptococcus or Enterococcus.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Antibiotics
  • Combination with chloramphenicol Chloramphenicol, macrolide antibiotics or tetracyclines Tetracycline may produce antagonistic effects.

Absorbents and antacids containing cations (Mg, Al)

Sucralfate and zinc salts

  • Inhibit absorption; separate doses of these drugs by 6-8 hours Sucralfate.

Theophylline

  • Increases plasma theophylline levels Theophylline (in humans) - monitor carefully.

NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)

  • Potential pharmacodynamic interactions in the CNS could lead to seizures (in susceptible animals).

Probenecid

  • Blocks the tubular secretion of fluoroquinolones and may increase its blood level and half-life.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Weese J S, Blondeau J, Boothe D et al (2019) International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases (ISCAID) guidelines for the diagnosis and management of bacterial urinary tract infections in dogs and cats. Vet J 247, 8-25 PubMed
  • Blondeau J M, Borsos S, Blondeau L D, Blondeau B J (2012) In vitro killing of Escherichia coliStaphylococcus pseudintermedius and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by enrofloxacin in combination with its active metabolite ciprofloxacin using clinically relevant drug concentrations in the dog and cat. Vet Microbiol 155 (2-4), 284-290 PubMed.
  • Ramirez C J (2011) Molecular genetic basis for fluoroquinolone-induced retinal degeneration in cats. Pharmacogenet Genomics 21 (2), 66-75 PubMed.
  • Shaheen B W, Boothe D M, Oyarzabal O A, Wang C, Johnson C M (2011) Evaluation of the contribution of gyrA mutation and efflux pumps to fluoroquinolone and multidrug resistance in pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from dogs and cats. Am J Vet Res 72 (1), 25-32 PubMed.
  • Ford M M, Dubielzig R R, Giuliano E A, Moore C P, Narfström K L (2007) Ocular and systemic manifestations after oral administration of a high dose of enrofloxacin in cats. Am J Vet Res 68 (2), 190-202 PubMed.
  • Gerhardt N, Schulz B S, Werckenthin C, Hartmann K (2006) Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and its efficacy in comparison with doxycycline in the treatment of Chlamydophila felis infection in cats with conjunctivitis. Vet Rec 159 (18), 591-594 PubMed.
  • Seguin M A, Papich M G, Sigle K J, Gibson N M, Levy J K (2004) Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in neonatal kittens. Am J Vet Res 65 (3), 350-356.
  • Wiebe V, Hamilton P (2002) Fluoroquinolone-induced retinal degeneration in cats. JAVMA 221 (11),1568-1571 PubMed.
  • Gelatt K N, van der Woerdt A, Ketring K L et al (2001) Enrofloxacin-associated retinal degeneration in cats. Vet Ophthal 4, 99-106 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Based on Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook. D C Plumb(ed) (2011) 7th edn. Wiley Balckwell, US. ISBN: 978-0-4709-5965-7.
  • Based on Small Animal Formulary. Ramsey I (2017) 9th edn. BSAVA, UK. ISBN: 978 1 905319 11 4.
  • First International Veterinary Symposium on Baytril Proceedings 1992.
  • Second International Veterinary Symposium on Baytril Proceedings 1996.
  • Fourth International Veterinary Symposium on Baytril Proceedings 2009.
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