ISSN 2398-2950      

Fracture: healing

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Introduction

  • Bone healing can be summarized as: fracture  →  hemorrhage  →  blood clot formation  → organization of clot into granulation tissue (infiltration of fibroblasts/fibrocytes)  →  fibrous callus (fibroblast, chondroblast and osteoblast activity)  →  calcified callus (cartilage and immature bone)  →  osteoclast/osteocyte activity  →  bone remodeling (mature lamellar bone)  →  restoration of original anatomy.
  • Bone healing requires a blood supply, a supply of cells, and a favorable mechanical environment.
  • The final shape of the bone will conform to Wolff's law - 'that the internal architecture and external form of a bone are related to its function and change when the function is altered'.

Bone healing

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Assessing bone healing

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Surgical intervention

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Complications

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Therapeutic aids

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • McLaughlin R M Jr. (1991) The evolution of the understanding of bone healing. VCOT (1), 16-20 Thieme.

Other sources of information

  • Montavon P M, Voss K & Langley-Hobbs S J (eds) (2009) Feline Orthopedic Surgery and Musculoskeletal Disease. Saunders ISBN: 978-0-7020-2986-8. 
  • Bojrab M J, Smeak D D & Bloomberg Mark S (1993) Disease Mechanisms in Small Animal Surgery. 2nd edn. Lea & Febiger. ISBN: 0 8121 1491 4.

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Fractures

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