ISSN 2398-2950      

Otitis interna

ffelis

Synonym(s): Inner ear disease


Introduction

  • Infection involving the organs of hearing and balance housed within the bony labyrinth.
  • Cause: most commonly spread of infection from middle ear, also hematogenous route or ascending infection through the Eustachian tube.
  • Signs: head tilt, circling and nystagmus (vestibular syndrome); unilateral deafness.
  • Diagnosis: history, clinical signs, neurological assessment, advanced diagnostic imaging (MRI, CT).
  • Treatment: broad-spectrum antibiotics initially, then based on cytology and bacterial culture of material collected on myringotomy where possible.
  • Prognosis: good but high frequency of residual deficits.
    Print off the owner factsheet on Chronic otitis to give to your client.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Extension of opportunistic infection from otitis media/externa.
  • Hematogenous spread.

Specific

Pathophysiology

Inner ear disease

  • Damage to cochlea:
    • Sensory nerve endings within the cochlea damaged by infection/trauma/ototoxicity leading to deafness.
  • Damage to vestibular apparatus:
    • Vestibular system consists of proprioceptors (saccule, utricle and semicircular canals) within the inner ear (petrosal temporal bone), the vestibular nerve (VIII), four brainstem nuclei and the cerebellum. Peripheral vestibular dysfunction (PVD) is as a result of damage to structures with the petrosal temporal bone. Central vestibular dysfunction (CVD) is due to damage to structures in the brain stem and cerebellum.
    • PVD most commonly extension of otitis externa/otitis media or idiopathic vestibular syndrome (IVS).
    • CVD most commonly caused by neoplasia, inflammatory or infectious disease, thiamine deficiency Thiamine deficiency, vascular, traumatic or toxic conditions.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Negrin A, Cherubini G B & Platt S (2010) Clinical signs, magnetic resonance imaging findings and outcomes in 77 cats with vestibular disease: a retrospective study journal of feline medicine and surgery. J Feline Med Surg 12 (4), 291-299 PubMed.
  • Bischoff M G & Kneller S K (2004) Diagnostic imaging of the canine and feline ear. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract  34 (2), 437-458 PubMed.
  • Trevor P B & Martin R A (1993) Tympanic bulla osteotomy for treatment of middle-ear disease in cats - 19 cases (1984-1991). JAVMA 202 (1), 123-128 PubMed.
  • Boothe H W Jr. (1988) Surgical management of otitis media and otitis interna. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 18 (4), 901-911 PubMed.
  • Schunk K L (1988) Disorders of the vestibular system. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 18 (3), 641-665 PubMed.
  • Shell L G (1988) Otitis media and otitis interna - etiology, diagnosis, and medical management. Vet clin North Am Small Anim Pract 18 (4), 885-899 PubMed.

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