ISSN 2398-2950      

Mycotoxicoses

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Contributor(s):

Vetstream Ltd

Nicola Bates

Synonym(s): Aflatoxin poisoning, Aflatoxicosis, trichothecene poisoning, Penitrem A poisoning, Roquefortine poisoning, Tremorgenic Mycotoxicosis


Introduction

  • These are diseases caused by ingestion of fungal toxins in food or food scraps. See also Mushroom and toadstool poisonings Mushroom poisoning.

Pathogenesis

Pathophysiology

  • Trichothecene mycotoxins: 
    • There are almost 200 trichothecenes including T-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol, neosolaniol, HT-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin), and nivalenol. Stachybotrys species produce trichothecenes and other mycotoxins. Trichothecenes are potent inhibitors of protein synthesis and nucleic acid synthesis, and are immunosuppressants.  
    • Rapidly dividing cells such as bone marrow, gastrointestinal cells and lymphoid tissue are most at risk. 
    • Trichothecenes are directly cytotoxic causing irritation and necrosis of the mouth and gastrointestinal tract and skin. 
    • Cats are thought to be particularly sensitive to some trichothecene mycotoxins due to their limited ability to form glucuronide conjugates and therefore limited detoxification and excretion of the toxins. 
    • Severe effects (ie mortality) occur in cats at low dose levels, therefore a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) or lowest observed effect level (LOAEL) could not be established for cats for the common trichothecenes T-2 toxin or HT-2 toxin.

Timecourse

  • Depending on the amount ingested, signs may take days or weeks to manifest. Initial signs are non-specific and may be overlooked. 

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

Stachybotryotoxicosis 

  •  Mader D R, Yike I, Distler A M, Dearborn D G (2007) Acute pulmonary hemorrhage during isoflurane anesthesia in two cats exposed to toxic black mold (Stachybotrys chartarum). J Am Vet Med Assoc 231 (5), 731-735 PubMed
  • Coppock R, Dziwenka M M (2004) Stachybotryotoxins. In: Clinical Veterinary Toxicology. Plumlee K (ed). St Louis, Missouri, Mosby, pp 268-270. 
  • Jarvis B B, Salemme J, Morais A (1995) Stachybotrys toxins. 1. Nat Toxins (1), 10-6 PubMed.  
  • Tantaoui-Elaraki A, Mekouar S L, el Hamidi M, Senhaji M (1994) Toxigenic strains of Stachybotrys atra associated with poisonous straw in Morocco. Vet Hum Toxicol 36 (2), 93-96 PubMed.
  • Forgacs J, Carll W T, Herring A S, Hinshaw W R (1958) Toxicity of Stachybotrys atra for animals. Trans N Y Acad Sci 20 (8), 787-808 PubMed.  
  • Korneev N E (1948) [Experimental stachybotryotoxicosis in laboratory animals]. Veterinariya (Moscow) 25, 36-40. Russian. Cited in: Hintikka E L (1978) Stachybotryotoxicosis in dogs. In: Willey T D, Morehouse LG (eds) Mycotoxic fungi, mycotoxins and mycotoxicosis. An encyclopedic handbook. Volume 2. New York, Marcel Dekker, Inc., pp 471-472.  

Trichothecenes 

  • EFSA (2011) Scientific Opinion on the risks for animal and public health related to the presence of T-2 and HT-2 toxin in food and feed. EFSA J 9, (12), 2481. Available from: https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/2481 
  • Haschek W M, Beasley V R (2009) Trichothecene Mycotoxins. In: Gupta RC (ed) Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents. Cambridge, MA. Academic Press, pp 353-369. 
  • WHO, World Health Organization (2001) WHO Food Additives Series: 47. Safety evaluation of certain mycotoxins in food. Prepared by the Fifty-sixth meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). Available at: http://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v47je06.htm
  • Fricke R F, Poppenga R H (1989) Treatment and prophylaxis for trichothecene. In: Beasley VR (ed) Trichothecene Mycotoxicosis: Pathogenic Effects, Volume II. Boca Raton, Florida. CRC Press, pp 135-168.  

Ergotism 

  • Brosig U (1993) Presumed ergotism in a cat. Vet Rec 133 (17), 432 PubMed.   

Other sources of information

  • Konnie Plumlee (ed) (2004) Clinical Veterinary Toxicology. Mosby Inc., pp 231-281.
  • Peterson and Talcott (eds) (2001) Small Animal Toxicology. W B Saunders Company, pp 593-599.
  • Gary D Osweiler (1996) Toxicology. Williams and Wilkins.
  • Willey T D, Morehouse L G (eds) (1978) Mycotoxic fungi, mycotoxins and mycotoxicosis. An encyclopedic handbook. Volume 2. New York, Marcel Dekker, Inc.. 

Organisation(s)

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