ISSN 2398-2950      

Hypervitaminosis A

ffelis
Contributor(s):

Tad Coles

Synonym(s): Deforming cervical spondylosis


Introduction

  • Vitamin A toxicity.
  • Cause: diet high in vitamin A, due to feeding high proportion of diet as liver or excessive supplementation.
  • Signs: anorexia, weight loss, lethargy, neck stiffness, lameness, progressive ankylosis   →   characteristic 'kangaroo' stance.
  • Diagnosis: radiology demonstrating cervical ankylosis and subperiosteal new bone; serology.
  • Treatment: provide diet balanced in vitamin A; supportive.
  • Prognosis: depends on degree of exostosis and ankylosis.
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Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Diet exclusive, or high in, liver.
  • Supplementation with vitamin A.
  • Dietary intake exceeding 60,000 IU/kg bodyweight/day (normal dietary allowance 300 IU/ kg bodyweight).

Specific

  • Liver diet.
  • Vitamin A supplementation.

Pathophysiology

  • Excess dietary vitamin A   →   formation of bony exostoses around joints.
  • Cervical vertebrae (particularly), elbow, hip and stifle joints affected.

Timecourse

  • Months.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Polizopoulou Z S, Kazakos G, Patsikas M N et al (2005) Hypervitaminosis A in the cat: a case report and review of the literature. J Feline Med Surg (6), 363-368 PubMed.
  • Coates J W (1998) Measuring vitamin A in blood plasma and serum. Can Vet J 39 (5), 261 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Holzworth J (1987) Diseases of the Cat. In: Medicine and Surgery. W B Saunders.

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