ISSN 2398-2985      

Sinusitis

Jreptile
Contributor(s):

Agata Witkowska

Kim Le

Synonym(s): Coryza, Rhinitis, Snuffles


Introduction

  • Cause:
    • Nutritional such as hypovitaminosis A.
    • Inappropriate husbandry leading to immunosuppression.
    • Bacterial infections, eg Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp, Pseudomonas spp, Proteus spp, Pasteurella spp, Aeromonas spp, Morganella morganii, Mycoplasma spp, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycobacteria spp.
    • Fungal infections, eg Aspergillus spp.
    • Neoplastic disease affecting the sinus tract.
    • Traumatic injuries to the face, eg when live prey is fed.
    • Viral infections such as Ferlavirus, Sunshinevirus, Arenavirus (inclusion body disease; IBD), Reovirus, Nidovirus in snakes as well as Herpes viruses in Chelonia.
    • Dysecdysis leading to obstruction of nostrils and dyspnea.
    • Parasitic such as disseminated intranuclear coccidiosis.
  • Signs: nasal discharge, bubbling at the nose, open mouth breathing, dyspnea, lethargy, inappetence, weakness, sudden death.
  • Diagnosis: thorough husbandry review including nutrition, culture and sensitivity swabbing, PCR testing, diagnostic imaging, bronchial/bronchoalveolar lavage, cytology, blood cultures.
  • Treatment: based on causative agents, systemic antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, nebulizing therapy.
  • Prognosis: good to guarded depending on the time of presentation.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General

Specific

  • Hypovitaminosis A Hypovitaminosis A may lead to non-specific signs such as inappetence, lethargy, periorbital swelling and nasal discharge.

Pathophysiology

  • Dysecdysis Ecdysis / dysecdysis may lead to obstruction of nostrils and dyspnea Dyspnea.
  • Hypovitaminosis A Hypovitaminosis A may lead to immunocompromise, periorbital swelling and predispose to secondary bacterial infections. Deficiencies of this vitamin affect the glandular mucous membrane epithelium.
  • Chronic stress of life in captivity may predispose reptiles to secondary infections with mycobacteria and fungal agents; this is often linked to poor husbandry and dirty conditions.

Timecourse

  • Days to months.
  • Herpes virus and Mycoplasma infections may resurface even after initial improvement. Recurrent cases of disease should be investigated for underlying immunosuppression.

Epidemiology

  • Captively kept reptiles are at a higher risk of repeated rostral trauma from collisions with the door of enclosure Traumatic injuries.
  • Feeding of live prey risks head trauma and injury in snakes: this is illegal in the UK unless indicated on welfare grounds (where an animal will not feed from dead prey under any circumstances). Such injuries may be more common in wild reptiles.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Comolli J R & Divers S J (2021) Respiratory diseases of snakes. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 24 (2), 321-340.
  • Marschang R E, Salzmann E & Pees M (2021) Diagnostics of infectious respiratory pathogens in reptiles. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 24 (2), 369-395.
  • Studer K & Girolamo N D (2021) Respiratory disorders in Chelonians. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 24 (2), 341-367.
  • Innis C J, Garner M M, Johnson A J et al (2007) Antemortem diagnosis and characterization of nasal intranuclear coccidiosis in Sulawesi tortoises (Indotestudo forsteni). J Vet Diagn Invest 19 (6), 660-667.
  • Schumacher J (2003) Reptile respiratory medicine. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 6 (1), 213-231.

Other sources of information

  • Cowan M L (2017) Diseases of the Respiratory System. In: Reptile Medicine and Surgery in Clinical Practice. John Wiley & Sons, UK, pp 299-306.

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