ISSN 2398-2985      

Ptyalism

Jreptile
Contributor(s):

Jemma Hildrew

Sarah Brown

Synonym(s): Hypersalivation, Drooling


Introduction

  • Cause: clinical sign which can be seen with heat stress, dental or oral disease, or accompanying tasting something bitter such as a bitter medication.
  • Signs: acute ptyalism with tasting something bitter may look more like foaming at the mouth. Accompanied with a lot of tongue movements and mastication.  May be weight loss and weakness if this is associated with dental or oral disease. Stomatitis may be associated with hypersalivation.
  • Diagnosis: history, oral/dental examination, fecal parasitology, radiography, CT.
  • Treatment: depends on cause.
  • Prognosis: poor to good, depending on cause.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Noxious stimulation (such as irritation, toxin, or oral discomfort) in mouth causing excessive salivation.
  • Heat stress response as body temperature rises Heat stress.
  • Stomatitis Stomatitis causing oral pain and hypersalivation.

Predisposing factors

General

  • If heat stress: elevated ambient temperature and humidity.
  • If dental disease: may be inappropriate diet, such as too much fruit or larval insects
  • If allowed free roam of the house/environment, may attempt to eat noxious or toxic substance or foreign body.
  • Substandard husbandry Chelonia husbandry, diet Chelonia nutrition and/or hibernation in Chelonia Hibernation / brumation.

Pathophysiology

  • Hypersalivation may occur with heat stress Heat stress.
  • Irritation in the mouth from dental disease Periodontal disease or noxious/bitter substance causes hypersalivation.
  • Irritation to the mouth from ingestion of a toxin may be due to direct action of the toxic chemical in the mucosa.
  • Infection of the oral mucosa, tongue or dental disease Periodontal disease.

Timecourse

  • Heat stress, toxin, bitter substance, foreign body: rapid, usually within minutes.
  • Dental disease: may be chronic.
  • For necrotizing stomatitis “mouth rot” Stomatitis in chelonia, underlying cause is usually chronic.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

Other sources of information

  • Pees M & Girling S (2019) Emergency Care. In: BSAVA Manual of Reptiles. 3rd edn. Eds: Girling S & Raiti P. BSAVA, UK. pp 101-114.
  • Funk R (2006) Differential Diagnoses by Symptoms: Snakes. In: Reptile Medicine and Surgery. 2nd edn. Ed: Mader D. Saunders, USA. pp 675-676.
  • Barten S (2006) Differential Diagnoses by Symptoms: Lizards. In: Reptile Medicine and Surgery. 2nd edn. Ed: Mader D. Saunders, USA. pp 686-688.
  • Boyer T (2006) Differential Diagnoses by Symptoms: Turtles, Tortoises and Terrapins. In: Reptile Medicine and Surgery. 2nd edn. Ed: Mader D. Saunders, USA. pp 699-702.

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