ISSN 2398-2985      

Lung-eye-trachea disease

Jreptile

Synonym(s): Lung-eye-trachea disease (LETD), Lung-eye-trachea virus (LETV), Chelonid herpesvirus 6 (CHV-6)


Introduction

  • Cause: Alphaherpesvirus, Scutavirus-like, Chelonid herpesvirus 6 (CHV-6)
  • Signs: conjunctivitis, stomatitis, pharyngitis, glottitis, tracheitis, pneumonia
  • Diagnosis: histopathology, virus isolation, PCR, ELISA, Western blot and immunohistochemistry
  • Treatment: non-specific. Antibiotics to control secondary bacterial infections. Supportive care.
  • Prognosis: fair to guarded. Lifelong carrier status.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General

  • Overcrowding.
  • Tanks without separate water sources.
  • Stressed animals appear more susceptible to develop clinical disease.

Specific

  • Sea turtles admitted for rehabilitation are often in a state of debilitation and are more likely to be shedding infectious agents and are also more likely to be immunocompromised.

Timecourse

  • Incubation periods 2-3 weeks.

Epidemiology

  • Possible transmission by:
    • Direct contact between infected individuals.
    • Fomites.
    • Infected seawater: LETV can remain infectious in seawater for over 5 days.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Origgi F C (2012) Testudinid Herpesviruses: A Review. J Herpetol Med Surg 22 (1-2), 42-54 VetMedResource.
  • McGeoch D J & Gatherer D (2005) Integrating reptilian herpesviruses into the family Herpesviridae. J Virol 79 (2), 725-731 PubMed.
  • Coberley S S, Condit R C, Herbst L H & Klein P A (2002) Identification and expression of immunogenic proteins of a disease-associated marine turtle herpesvirus. J Virol 76 (20), 10553-10558 PubMed.
  • Coberley S S, Herbst L H, Brown D R et al (2001) Detection of antibodies to a disease-associated herpesvirus of the green turtle, Chelonia mydas. J Clin Microbiol 39 (10), 3572-3577 PubMed.
  • Coberley S S, Herbst L H, Ehrhart L M et al (2001) Survey of Florida green turtles for exposure to a disease-associated herpesvirus. Dis Aquat Organ 47 (3), 159-167 PubMed.
  • Curry S S, Brown D R, Gaskin J M et al (2000) Persistent infectivity of a disease-associated herpesvirus in green turtles after exposure to seawater. J Wildl Dis 36 (4), 792-797 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Innis C J (2019) Medical Management and Rehabilitation of Sea Turtles. In: Mader’s Reptile and Amphibian Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds: Divers S J & Stahl S J. Elsevier, USA. pp 1382-1388
  • Marschang R E & Chitty J (2019) Infectious Diseases. In: BSAVA Manual of Reptiles. 3rd edn. Eds: Girling S J & Raiti P. BSAVA, UK. pp 423-442.
  • Marschang R E (2019) Virology. In: Mader’s Reptile and Amphibian Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds: Divers S J & Stahl S J. Elsevier, USA. pp 247-269.
  • Rousselet E & Norton T (2019) Sea Turtles. In: BSAVA Manual of Reptiles. 3rd edn. Eds: Girling S J & Raiti P. BSAVA, UK. pp 457-469.
  • Marschang R E (2014) Clinical Virology. In: Current Therapy in Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Eds: Mader D R & Divers S J. Elsevier Saunders, USA. pp 32-52.
  • Marschang R E (2009) EAZWV Transmissible Disease Fact Sheet. Lung-Eye-Trachea Disease (LETD). Website: www.eazwv.org (pdf download).
  • Jacobson E R (2007) Viruses and Viral Diseases of Reptiles. In: Infectious Diseases and Pathology of Reptiles. Ed: Jacobson E R. CRC Press, USA. pp 395-460.

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