ISSN 2398-2985      

Hypocalcemia

Jreptile
Contributor(s):

Vicki Baldrey

Anna Meredith

Synonym(s): Low calcium levels


Introduction

  • Cause: low calcium diet, inappropriate dietary calcium: phosphorus ratio, hypovitaminosis D, nutritional or renal secondary hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, pregnancy toxemia.
  • Signs: weakness, muscle tremors, seizures, lameness, cloacal prolapse.
  • Diagnosis: biochemistry, diagnostic imaging.
  • Treatment: calcium supplementation, treat underlying cause, correct diet and husbandry.
  • Prognosis: good if mild clinical signs; poor if severe, advanced underlying disease. Can be life threatening.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Secondary to renal secondary hyperparathyroidism in geriatric animals.
  • Secondary to nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Low calcium, high phosphorus diet.
  • Hypovitaminosis D.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid neoplasia (adenoma, adenocarcinoma) is reported in reptiles.
  • Hypocalcemia may also occur with hypoproteinemia.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Lack of UVB exposure and adequate temperature range.

Specific

  • Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Renal secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Parathyroidectomy.

Timecourse

  • Acute or chronic depending on underlying cause.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

Other sources of information

  • Boyer T H & Scott P W (2018) Nutritional Diseases In: Mader’s Reptile and Amphibian Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds: Divers S J & Stahl S J. Elsevier, USA. pp 932-950.
  • Raiti P (2018) Endocrinology In: Mader’s Reptile and Amphibian Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds. Divers S J & Stahl S J. Elsevier, USA. pp 835-848.

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