ISSN 2398-2985      

Collapse

Jreptile

Introduction

  • Cause:  etiology can be due to many reasons. Clinical presentations of weakness and collapse in reptiles are often due to systemic illness and chronic disease; often the animal presents once the disease process is advanced.
  • Signs: report that animal has had ‘a funny turn’. Other presenting signs may be reported depending on the underlying cause, eg salivation, glazed look. Other signs may include chronic weight loss, weakness, unresponsive.
  • Diagnosis: thorough history and physical examination. Minimum database to include hematology, biochemistry and urinalysis. Other tests depending on history and examination. Radiography of small animals often indicated to investigate trauma.
  • Treatment: supportive care. Treat underlying condition.
  • Prognosis: depends on underlying causes.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Can be challenging to establish etiology; often requires many diagnostic tests which often yield negative results. Achieving a definitive diagnosis may not be possible for some cases.

Cardiovascular (heart disease)

  • Arrhythmia (cardiac arrhythmias, including conduction disturbances):
    • Bradycardia.
    • Tachycardia.
  • Output failure Heart disease:
    • Aortic stenosis (congenital aortic stenosis with secondary ventricular dilatation has been reported in a green iguana).
    • Dilated cardiomyopathy (described in reptiles, particularly in snakes).
    • Shock.
    • Hypovolemia due to abdominal catastrophe.
  • Thromboembolic disease:
    • Salmonella embolic septicemia reported to cause atrial thromboembolism in a green iguana.
    • Hepatic artery thromboembolism has been reported in inland Bearded dragons associated with advanced periodontal disease.
  • Cranial aneurysms in Bearded dragons
  • Severe blood loss, for example bleeding from trauma, eg dog bite wounds.

Musculoskeletal

​Neurological

  • Seizure.
  • Botulism (uncommon but reported in green-sea turtles) Botulism.
  • Intracranial disease:

Metabolic disease

​​Respiratory disease

  • Hypoxia: severe pulmonary disease.
  • Ventilation perfusion mismatch: pulmonary thromboembolus.
  • Airway stenosis:
    • Laryngeal paralysis.
    • Brachycephalic airway obstruction syndrome.
  • Airway obstruction:
    • Neoplasia.
    • Foreign body.
  • Neoplastic disease.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Hynes B & Girling S J (2019) Cardiovascular and Haemopoietic Systems. In: BSAVA Manual of Reptiles. 3rd edn. Eds: Girling S J & Raiti P. BSAVA, UK. pp 323-341.

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