ISSN 2398-2985      

Atadenovirus infection

Jreptile

Synonym(s): ADV, Wasting disease, Star-gazing disease


Introduction

  • Cause: Atadenovirus.
  • Signs: anorexia, lethargy, wasting, head tilt, opisthotonus, circling, stomatitis, dermatitis, pneumonia, dehydration, regurgitation, diarrhea, sudden death.
  • Diagnosis: PCR, histopathology.
  • Treatment: supportive; no cure.
  • Prognosis: poor.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Atadenovirus (non-enveloped), linear double-stranded DNA 26-45 kbp in size.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Young age.
  • Immunosuppression.
  • Concomitant disease.
  • Keeping adult asymptomatic Bearded dragons with youngsters.
  • Asymptomatic adult Bearded dragons may be a source of infection for other species of reptiles in mixed collections.
  • Asymptomatic wild caught reptiles may be a source of infection for other reptiles.

Specific

  • Bacterial infections.
  • Neoplasia.
  • Microsporidia.
  • Coccidia.
  • Enterohepatic amoebiasis.
  • Ulcerative enteritis.
  • Retrovirus.
  • Parvovirus.
  • Picornavirus.
  • Paramyxovirus.
  • Herpesvirus.
  • Poor husbandry.

Pathophysiology

  • Atadenovirus replicates in cell nucleus.
  • Viral particles accumulate and form intranuclear inclusion bodies.
  • Clinical and pathological changes vary amongst different species.
  • Primarily affects the liver and gastrointestinal tract.
  • Fecal-oral transmission therefore suspected.
  • Vertical transmission suspected to occur as well.

Timecourse

  • Unknown.
  • A neonatal boa died from hepatic necrosis 14 days after intracelomic injection with an adenovirus that contained suspension derived from a Savannah monitor.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Abbas M D, Marschang R E, Schmidt V et al (2011) A unique novel reptilian paramyxovirus, four atadenovirus types and a reovirus identified in a concurrent infection of a corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) collection in Germany. Vet Microbiol 150 (1-2), 70-79 PubMed.
  • Doszpoly A, wellehan J F jr, Childress A L et al (2013) Partial characterisation of an adenovirus lineage discovered in testudinoid turtles. Infect Gen Evol 17, 106-112 PubMed.
  • Garner M M, Wellehan J F X, Perason M et al (2008) Characterization of enteric infections associated with two novel atadenoviruses in colubrid snakes. J Herp Med Surg 18, 86-94 ResearchGate.
  • Papp T, Fledelius B, Schmidt V et al (2009) PCR sequence characterisation of new adenoviruses found in reptiles and the first successful isolation of a lizard adenovirus. Vet Microbiol 134 (3-4), 233-240 PubMed.
  • Rivera S, Wellehan J F jr, McManomon R et al (2009) Systemic adenovirus infection in Sulawesi tortoises (Indotestudo forsteni) caused by a novel siadenovirus. J Vet Diagn Invest 21 (4), 415-426 PubMed.
  • Wellehan J F, Johnson A J, Harrach B et al (2004) Detection and analysis of six lizard adenoviruses by consensus primer PCR provides further evidence of a reptilian origin for the atadenoviruses. J Virol 78 (23), 13366-13369 PubMed.
  • Kim D Y, Mitchell M A, Bauer R W, Poston R & Cho D-Y (2002) An outbreak of adenoviral infection in inland bearded dragons (Pogono vitticeps) coinfected with dependovirus and coccidial protozoa (Isospora sp). J Vet Diag Invest 14 (4), 332-334 PubMed.
  • Perkins L E L, Campagnoli R P, Harmon B G et al (2001) Detection and confirmation of reptilian infection by in-situ hybridisation. J Vet Diagn Invest 13 (4), 365-368 PubMed.
  • Ramis A, Fernandez-Bellon H, Majo N et al (2000) Adenovirus hepatitis in a boa constrictor (Boa constrictor). J Vet Diagn Invest 12 (6), 573-576 PubMed.
  • Wozniak E J, deNardo D F, Brewer A et al (2000) Identification of adenovirus - and dependovirus-like agents in an outbreak of fatal gastroenteritis in captive born California Mountain kingsnakes, Lampropeltis zonata multicincta. J Herp Med Surg 10 (2), 4-7 ResearchGate.
  • Kinsell M J, Barbiers R B, Manharth A et al (1997) Small intestine adeno-like virus in a mountain chameleon (Chameleo montium). J Zoo Wildl Med 28 (4), 498 PubMed.
  • Schumaker J, Jacobson E R, Burns R et al (1994) Adenovirus infection in two rosy boas (Lichanura trivirgata). J Zoo Wildl Med 25 (3), 461-465 JSTOR.
  • Juhasz A & Ahne W (1992) Physiochemical properties and cytopathogenicity of an adenovirus-like agent isolated from a corn snake (Elaphe guttata). Arch Virol 130 (3-5), 429-439 PubMed.
  • Ogawa M, Ahne W, Essbauer S (1992) Reptilian viruses: adenovirus-like agent isolated from royal python (Python regius). J Vet Med Ser B 39 (10), 732-736 PubMed.
  • Jacobson E R & Gardiner C H (1990) Adeno-like virus in esophageal and tracheal mucosa of a Jacksons Chameleon (Chamaeleo jacksoni). Vet Pathol 27 (3), 210-212 PubMed.
  • Jacobson E R & Kollias G V (1986) Adenovirus-like infection in a savannah monitor. J Zoo Anim Med 17 (4), 149-151 JSTOR.
  • Jacobson E R & Gaskin J M (1985) Adenovirus-like infection in a boa constrictor. J Am Vet Med Assoc 187 (11), 1226 PubMed.
  • Heldstab A & Bestetti G (1984) Virus associated gastrointestinal disease in snakes. J Zoo Anim Med 15 (3), 118-128 JSTOR.
  • Jacobson E R, Gardiner C H & Foggion C M (1984) Adenovirus-like infection two Nile crocodiles. J Am Vet Med Assoc 185 (11), 1421-1422 PubMed.
  • Julian A F & Durham J K (1982) Adenoviral hepatitis in a female Bearded dragon (Amphobolurus barbatus). NZ Vet J 30 (5), 59-60 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Girling S J (2019) Neurology. In: BSAVA Manual of Reptiles. 3rd edn. BSAVA, UK. pp 357-359.
  • Heard D (2019) Crocodilians. In: BSAVA Manual of Reptiles. 3rd edn. BSAVA, UK. pp 452.
  • Marschang R & Chitty J (2019) Infectious Disease. In: BSAVA Manual of Reptiles. 3rd edn. BSAVA, UK. pp 432-433.
  • Stacy N, Heard D & Wellehan W (2019) Diagnostic Sampling and Laboratory Tests. In: BSAVA manual of Reptiles. 3rd edn. BSAVA, UK. pp 131.
  • Lock B A & Wellehan J (2015) Ophidia (Snakes). In: Fowlers Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. Volume 8. Eds: Miller R E & Fowler M E. Elsevier Saunders, USA. pp 69.
  • Marschang R E (2014) Clinical Virology. In: Current Therapy in Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Eds: Mader D R & Divers S J. Elsevier Saunders, USA. pp 42-43.
  • Reavill D & Griffin C (2014) Common Pathology and Diseases Seen in Pets Store Reptiles. In: Current Therapy in reptile Medicine and Surgery. Eds: Mader D R & Divers S J. Elsevier Saunders, USA. pp 14-17.
  • Wellehan J F X Jr (2014) Clinical Aspects of Evolution in Reptile Medicine. In: Current Therapy in Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Eds: Mader D R & Divers S J. Elsevier Saunders, USA. pp 23-24.
  • Wellehan J F X Jr (2014) Molecular Infectious Disease Diagnostics. In: Current Therapy in Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Eds: Mader D R & Divers S J. Elsevier Saunders, USA. pp 29.
  • Hernandez-Divers S J (2006) Appendix A. Reptile Viral Diseases - Summary Table. In: Reptile Medicine and Surgery. 2nd edn. Eds: Mader D. Saunders Elsevier, USA. pp 1150-1151.
  • Ritchie B (2006) Virology. In: Reptile Medicine and Surgery. 2nd edn. Ed: Mader D. Saunders Elsevier, USA. pp 397-401.
  • Heard D, Harr K & Wellehan J (2004) Diagnostic Sampling and Laboratory Tests. In: BSAVA Manual of Reptiles. 2nd edn. BSAVA, UK. pp 85.
  • Keeble E (2004) Neurology. In: BSAVA Manual of Reptiles. 2nd edn. BSAVA, UK. pp 281.
  • Marschang R E & Chitty J (2004) Infectious Diseases. In: BSAVA Manual of Reptiles. 2nd edn. BSAVA, UK. pp 332-338.
  • Ritchie B W (1995) Avian Viruses: Function and Control. Wingers Publishing, USA. – INCOMPLETE REF?

Organisation(s)

  • Ball I, Offner S, Funk R S et al (2013) Detection of Antibodies Against Adenoviruses in Lizards and Snakes. In: Proc Association Reptile & Amphibian Vets. pp 12.
  • Marschang R E, Michling R, Benko M et al (2003) Evidence for Widespread Atadenovirus Infection Among Snakes. In: Proc 6th Int Congress Vet Virol. pp 152.
  • Wellehan J F X, Johnson A J, Jacobson E R et al (2003) Nested PCR Amplification and Sequencing of Reptile Adenoviruses, including a Novel Gecko Adenovirus Associated with Enteritis. In: Proc Assoc Reptile & Amphibian Vets. pp 14.
  • Boyer T H, Garner M M & Jacobson E R (2000) Intranuclear Inclusion Disorder in Morelia spp. In: Proc Assoc Reptile & Amphibian Vets. pp 85.

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