ISSN 2398-2985      

Blood biochemistry: total protein

4ferrets

Synonym(s): TP


Overview

  • Comprises albumin and globulin fractions.
  • Proteins in the serum are composed of albumin, antibodies, complement, different enzymes, coagulation factors, and transport proteins, with albumin and globulins making up the vast majority.
  • Globulin fraction = alpha, beta and gamma subfractions.
  • Absolute changes in albumin and globulin associated with wide range of clinical conditions.
  • Electrophoresis: separation of globulin subfractions provides further information.
  • Total serum protein does not measure fibrinogen; total plasma protein does measure fibrinogen.
  • Serum or plasma proteins are primarily synthesized in the liver.

Sampling

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Tests

Methodologies

  • Biuret: standard method.
  • Calibrated refractometer: for rapid result.
  • Most accurate results using plasma rather than serum.
  • Electrophoresis: followed by scanning with densitometer to quantify individual globulin subfractions.

Availability

  • Biuret: widely available.
  • Refractometer: widely available.
  • Electrophoresis: commercial laboratories.

Validity

Sensitivity

  • Biuret: accurate except at low levels (<10 g/l).
  • Refractometer: generally satisfactory for clinical purposes.

Technique (intrinsic) limitations

  • Usually must be interpreted in conjunction with other laboratory and clinical findings to reach a diagnosis.

Technician (extrinsic) limitations

  • Electrophoresis.
  • Biuret.
  • Refractometer.

Result Data

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Hein J, Spreyer F, Sauter-Louis C et al (2012) Reference ranges for laboratory parameters in ferrets. Vet Rec 171, 218 PubMed.
  • Hauptman K, Tichy F & Znotek Z (2001) Clinical diagnostics of hepatopathies in small mammals: evaluation of importance of individual methods. Acta Vet Brno 70, 297-311.

Other sources of information

  • Mayer J & Donnelly T M (2013) Clinical Veterinary Advisor: Birds and Exotic Pets. Elsevier, USA. pp 752.

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