ISSN 2398-2985      

Cyclophosphamide

4ferrets

Introduction

Name

  • Cyclophosphamide.

Class of drug

  • Antineoplastic/immunosuppressive.
  • Alkylating agent.

Description

Chemical name

  • N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)tetrahydro-2H-1,3,2-oxazaphosphorin-2-amine 2-oxide monohydrate.
  • 2-[bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]tetrahydro-2H-1,3,2-oxazophosphorine 2-oxide monohydrate.

Molecular formula

  • C7H15Cl2N2O2P.H2O.

Molecular weight

  • 261.08.

Physical properties

  • White crystalline powder soluble in water and alcohol.

Storage requirements

  • Store in tight containers at room temperature.
  • Avoid temperatures higher than 30°C/86°F.
  • Reconstituted powder stable for 24 h at room temperature and for 6 days under refrigeration.

Uses

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Indications

  • Commonly used in combination with other drugs.
  • Antineoplastic (lymphomas, leukemias, carcinomas…).
  • Immunosuppressive (for the treatment of disseminated myositis, a suspected autoimmune disease).

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Digoxin
  • See also digoxin Digoxin.
  • Absorption of orally-administered digoxin may be decreased. This may occur several days after the cyclophosphamide is administered.
Barbiturates
  • Increase cyclophosphamide toxicity (increased rate of conversion to metabolites).
Phenothiazines
  • Reduce cyclophosphamide efficacy (by inhibiting activation of P450 enzymes which activate cyclophosphamide).
Chloramphenicol and corticosteroids
  • Reduce cyclophosphamide efficacy (by inhibiting activation of P450 enzymes which activate cyclophosphamide).
Doxorubicin
  • Increased risk of cardiotoxicity.

with diagnostic tests

  • Frequent urinalysis is recommended for the early detection of hemorrhagic cystitis.
  • Uric acid levels in blood may be increased after cyclophosphamide use.
  • May cause false negative results in antigenic skin tests such as tuberculin.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Plumb D C (2008) Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. 6th edn. Blackwell Publishing, USA.
  • Tennant B (1999) Small Animal Formulary. 3rd edn. BSAVA, UK.
  • Fraizier D L & Hahn K A (1995) Commonly Used Drugs. In: Cancer Chemotherapy A Veterinary Handbook. Eds: Hahn K A & Richardson R C. Williams & Wilkins, USA. pp 94-95.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.
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