ISSN 2398-2985      

Urethral obstruction

4ferrets

Introduction

  • Cause: formation of struvite or cysteine stones.
  • Signs: stranguria, pain, nausea, anorexia, ataxia, reluctance to move.
  • Diagnosis: radiography, ultrasonography.
  • Treatment: urinary catheterization, cystotomy.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Stone formation, may be struvite or cysteine, in the bladder -> small stones pass into the urethra.
  • Mucoid plugs/prostate cells can also block the urethra and is consistent with prostate changes due to adrenal disease. Prostate enlargement can also produce urethral obstruction.
  • In intact males this mucoid plug blockage has been seen by the author.
  • Blockage frequently occurs where the urethra bends around the pelvis.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Diet containing too much vegetable matter predisposes to urolithiasis Cystitis and urolithiasis.
  • Adrenal disease predisposes to prostatic disease and urethral compression.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Nwaokorie E E, Osborne C A, Lulich J P et al (2013) Epidemiological evaluation of cystine urolithiasis in domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo): 70 cases (1992-2009). JAVMA 242 (8), 1099-1103 VetMedResource.
  • Nwaokorie E E, Osborne C A, Lulich J P et al (2011) Epidemiology of struvite uroliths in ferrets: 272 cases (1981-2007)JAVMA 239 (10), 1319-1324 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Mayer J & Donnelly T M (2013) Clinical Veterinary Advisor: Birds and Exotic Pets. Elsevier, USA. pp 752.

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