ISSN 2398-2985      

Sinusitis

4ferrets
Contributor(s):

Agata Witkowska

Kim Le

Synonym(s): Coryza, Rhinitis, Snuffles


Introduction

  • Cause:
    • Viral disease such as influenza A, SARS COVID-19 (can be contracted from humans), canine distemper and corona virus.
    • Bacterial: Pseudomonas spp, Bordetella bronchiseptica and Escherichia coli, Mycoplasma spp.
    • Fungal disease, including blastomycosis and cryptococcosis.
    • Foreign bodies.
    • Neoplastic disease such as lymphoma.
    • Seasonal allergic disease.
  • Signs: nasal discharge, bubbling at the nose, open mouth breathing, dyspnea, lethargy, inappetence, weakness, sudden death.
  • Diagnosis: thorough husbandry review including nutrition, culture and sensitivity swabbing, PCR testing, diagnostic imaging, bronchial/bronchoalveolar lavage, cytology, blood cultures.
  • Treatment: based on causative agents, systemic antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, nebulizing therapy.
  • Prognosis: good to guarded depending on the time of presentation.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General

  • Underlying disease such as hepatic lipidosis Hepatic lipidosis.
  • Sub-optimal husbandry, including high stocking densities, poor ventilation, poor hygiene, use of organic substrate/bedding.

Pathophysiology

  • Ferrets are susceptible to human influenza infections Influenza and SARS COVID-19 . Handling by positive owners should be avoided.
  • Canine distemper Canine distemper is fatal in ferrets: transmission occurs by direct contact with contaminated individuals, fomites or excretions.

Timecourse

  • Days to months.
  • Herpes virus and Mycoplasma infections may resurface even after initial improvement. Recurrent cases of disease should be investigated for underlying immunosuppression.

Epidemiology

  • High mammal stocking densities with poor ventilation. This can include pet store shipments.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Lennox A M (2021) Respiratory disorders in ferrets. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 24 (2), 483-493 PubMed.
  • Le K, Beaufrere H, Laniesse D et al (2019) Diagnosis and long-term management of blastomycosis in two ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). J Exot Pet Med, 31, 39-44 VetMedResource.
  • Darrow B G, Mans C, Drees R et al (2014). Pulmonary blastomycosis in a domestic ferret. J Exotic Pet Med23 (2), 158-164 SciDirect.
  • Thas I & Cohen-Solal N A (2014) Acquired oronal fistula in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo). J Exotic Pet Med 23 (4), 409-414 SciDirect.
  • Kiupel M, Desjardins D R, Lim A et al (2012) Mycoplasmosis in ferrets. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 18 (11), 763-1770 PubMed.
  • Johnson-Delaney C A & Orosz S E (2011) Ferret respiratory system: clinical anatomy, physiology, and disease. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 14 (2), 357-367 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Perpinan D (2020) Respiratory Diseases of Ferrets. In: Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 4th edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E, Orcutt C J, Mans C & Carpenter J W. Elsevier, USA. pp 71-76.

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