ISSN 2398-2985      

Hypocalcemia

4ferrets
Contributor(s):

Vicki Baldrey

Anna Meredith

Synonym(s): Low calcium levels


Introduction

  • Cause: low calcium diet, inappropriate dietary calcium: phosphorus ratio, hypovitaminosis D, nutritional or renal secondary hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, pregnancy toxemia.
  • Signs: weakness, muscle tremors, seizures, lameness.
  • Diagnosis: biochemistry, diagnostic imaging.
  • Treatment: calcium supplementation, treat underlying cause, correct diet and husbandry.
  • Prognosis: good if mild clinical signs; poor if severe, advanced underlying disease. Can be life threatening.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Secondary to renal secondary hyperparathyroidism in geriatric animals.
  • Secondary to nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Low calcium, high phosphorus diet.
  • Hypovitaminosis D.
  • Hypoparathyroidism Hypoparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidism has been reported.
  • Hypocalcemia may also occur with hypoproteinemia.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Pregnancy and lactation.

Specific

  • Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Renal secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Hypoparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidism has been reported.
  • Pregnancy toxemia.
  • Lactation.
  • Parathyroidectomy.

Timecourse

  • Acute or chronic depending on underlying cause.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • De Matos R E, Connolly M J, Starkey S R & Morrisey J K (2014) Suspected primary hypoparathyroidism in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo). J Am Vet Med Assoc 245 (4), 419-424 PubMed.
  • Wilson G H, Greene C E & Greenacre C B (2003) Suspected pseudohypoparathyroidism in a domestic ferret. J Am Vet Med Assoc 222 (8), 1093-1096 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Pollock C G (2012) Disorders of the Urinary and Reproductive Systems. In: Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents: Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Elsevier, USA. pp 46-61.

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