ISSN 2398-2985      

Hepatitis

4ferrets

Synonym(s): Inflammation of the liver


Introduction

  • Cause: inflammation may be related to chronic visceral inflammation including inflammatory bowel disease, infectious agents, foreign materials (such as trichobezoars, foreign bodies); Helicobacter mustelae has been found in hepatitis and may be causative.
  • Signs: anorexia, weight loss, vomiting, diarrhea, icterus, abdominal pain.
  • Diagnosis: radiography, ultrasonography.
  • Treatment:  symptomatic supportive care, fluid therapy, anti-diarrheal if Helicobacter, surgery if neoplasia.
  • Prognosis: guarded to poor.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Inflammation may be related to chronic visceral inflammation including inflammatory bowel disease Inflammatory bowel disease, infectious agents, foreign materials (such as trichobezoars Hair balls, foreign bodies Gastrointestinal foreign bodies).
  • Helicobacter mustelae has been found in hepatitis and may be causative.
  • Other enteric pathogenic bacteria have been postulated as causative agents.
  • Often there is concurrent neoplastic disease.
  • Chronic cholangiohepatitis with biliary hyperplasia of variable intensity has been found.
  • Cholelithiasis may be present Gallbladder disease overview.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Helicobacter mustelae has been implicated in contributing to some hepatitis.

Pathophysiology

  • Infectious agents contribute to damage to hepatocytes, inflammatory cells infiltrate liver parenchyma, bile duct tree, which can contribute to cholestasis.
  • Bile accumulation contributes to further liver dysfunction.
  • With cellular damage and inflammation, liver enzymes elevate, which further tissue damage.

Timecourse

  • Acute hepatitis may be attributed more often to bacterial causes (other than Helicobacter), while more chronic hepatitis may be due to Helicobacter, neoplasia.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Kaye S W, Ossiboff R J, Noonan B et al (2015) Biliary coccidiosis associated with immunosuppressive treatment of pure red cell aplasia in an adult ferret (Mustela putorius furo). J Exotic Pet Med 24 (2), 215-222 VetMedResource.
  • Hall B A & Ketz-Riley C J (2011) Cholestasis and cholelithiasis in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo). J Vet Diag Invest 23 (4), 836-839 PubMed.
  • Hauptman K, Jekl V & Knotek Z (2011) Extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction in two ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). J Small Anim Pract 52 (7), 371-375 PubMed.
  • Garcia A, Erdman SE, Xu S et al (2002) Hepatobiliary inflammation, neoplasia, and argyrophilic bacteria in a ferret colony. Vet Pathol 39 (2), 173-179 PubMed.
  • Marini R P, Fox J G et al (1999) Ranitidine bismuth citrate and clarithromycin, alone or in cvombination, for eradication of Helicobacter mustelae infection in ferrets. Am J Vet Res 60 (10), 1280-1286 PubMed.
  • Reindel J F & Evans M G (1987) Cystic mucinous hyperplasia in the gallbladder of a ferret. J Comp Pathol 97, 601-604 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Perpinan D & Johnson-Delaney C A (2017) Disorders of the Digestive System and Liver. In: Ferret Medicine and Surgery. Ed: Johnson-Delaney C A. CRC Press, USA. pp 159-190.
  • Burgess M E (2007) Ferret Gastrointestinal and Hepatic Diseases. In: Ferret Husbandry, Medicine and Surgery. 2nd edn. Saunders, USA. pp 203-223.

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