ISSN 2398-2985      

Gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma/carcinoma

4ferrets
Contributor(s):

Mark Naguib

Vicki Baldrey

Synonym(s): Neuroendocrine gastric adenocarcinoma, Pyloric adenocarcinoma, Pancreatic carcinoma, Intestinal adenocarcinoma, Hepatic carcinoma, Hepatic adenocarcinoma


Introduction

  • Cause: pyloric adenocarcinoma can be a spontaneous neoplasia in ferrets or may be secondary to Helicobacter mustelae chronic gastritis. Pancreatic, intestinal and hepatic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma usually arise spontaneously or as a result of metastasis
  • Signs: anorexia, nausea, vomiting, non-responsive chronic diarrhea, melaena, weight loss, abdominal pain, lethargy.
  • Diagnosis: gastroscopy or exploratory laparotomy and biopsy
  • Treatment: no known effective treatment
  • Prognosis: guarded to poor depending on location

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Pancreatic, intestinal and gastric/pyloric adenocarcinoma usually arise spontaneously.
  • H. mustelae in ferrets can cause chronic gastritis Helicobacter mustelae gastritis and has been associated with both pyloric adenocarcinoma and mucosal associated lymphoid tissue gastric lymphoma Lymphoma overview.

Pathophysiology

  • Most gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas are thought to be of spontaneous origin.
  • Chronic gastritis is thought to predispose to gastric adenocarcinoma (as well as gastric lymphoma).
  • Pancreatic beta islet cell carcinoma can metastasize extensively, and cause generalized abdominal carcinomatosis.
  • Intestinal adenocarcinoma may result in complete intestinal obstruction.
  • Hepatic adenocarcinomata can result from adrenal metastasis.
  • Hepatic carcinoma may arise spontaneously.

Timecourse

  • Gastric/pyloric adenocarcinoma: once clinical signs are evident disease may progress rapidly and become fatal or warrant euthanasia.
  • Intestinal adenocarcinoma that results in intestinal obstruction may result in rapid deterioration.
  • Other carcinomas and adenocarcinomas may not present as acutely.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Whitington J K, Emerson J A, Satkus T M et al (2006) Exocrine pancreatic carcinoma and carcinomatosis with abdominal effusion containing mast cells in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 9 (3), 643-650 PubMed.
  • Lennox A M (2005) Gastrointestinal diseases of the ferret. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 8 (2), 213-225 PubMed.
  • Erdman S E, Correa P & Coleman L A (1997) Helicobacter mustelae-associated gastric MALT lymphoma in ferrets. Am J Pathol 151 (1), 273-280 PubMed.
  • Sleeman J M, Clyde V L, Jones M P & Mason G L (1995) Two cases of pyloric adenocarcinoma in the ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Vet Rec 137(11), 272-273 PubMed.
  • Rice L E, Stahl S J & McLeod C G Jr (1992) Pyloric adenocarcinoma in a ferret. J Am Vet Med Assoc 200 (8), 1117–1118 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Perpinan D & Johnson-Delaney C A (2017) Disorders of the Digestive System and Liver. In: Ferret Medicine and Surgery. Ed: Johnson-Delaney C A. CRC Press, USA. pp 159-190.
  • Hoefer H L, Fox J G & Bell J A (2012) Gastrointestinal Diseases. In: Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents. 3rd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Elsevier, USA. pp 27-45.
  • F Burgess M E (2007) Ferret Gastrointestinal and Hepatic Diseases. In: Ferret Husbandry, Medicine and Surgery. 2nd edn. Saunders, USA. pp 203-223.

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