ISSN 2398-2985      

Bromethalin toxicity

4ferrets

Introduction

  • This is a rodenticide affecting the central nervous system (CNS).
  • Generally sold as a 0.01% bait.
  • Bromethalin and its metabolite demethylbromethalin uncouple oxidative phosphorylation in the CNS which leads to loss of the Na+-K+ ATPase pump and retention of fluid in the brain and spinal cord, particularly within the myelin sheaths -> elevated CSF pressure.
  • The toxic dose is not available for ferrets, but the median lethal dose varies by species; this falls between 0.25 mg/kg for pigs and up to 5.6 mg/kg for dogs.
  • Bromethalin undergoes enterohepatic recirculation.
  • Cause: ingestion of bromethalin bait.
  • Signs: hindlimb weakness, paresis, paralysis.
  • Diagnosis: history and clinical signs.
  • Treatment: none once signs have begun, supportive and symptomatic, including steroids. Emesis, gastric lavage, activated charcoal.
  • Prognosis: poor to grave.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Ingestion of bromethalin rodenticide.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Ferrets left in areas where they can consume bait or animals, eg rodents, that have consumed bait.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

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