ISSN 2398-2977      

Larynx ultrasonography

pequis

Synonym(s): Laryngeal ultrasonography


Introduction

  • Investigation of upper airway abnormalities in the horse causing an abnormal noise or poor performance.
  • Evaluation of the hyoid apparatus.
  • Particularly helpful in those resulting in abnormal arytenoid movement:

Uses

Advantages

  • Equipment is widely available.
  • Can be performed in an ambulatory or hospital situation.
  • Safe and non-invasive.
  • Allows additional evaluation of upper airway cases, particularly the laryngeal cartilages and associated muscles.
  • Less expensive and invasive to carry out than resting or overground/treadmill endoscopy evaluation. Can be helpful where overground endoscopy is not available.
  • Tolerated well by most horses.

Disadvantages

  • Not applicable in all upper airway cases:
    • Most useful in those cases where abnormal arytenoid movement is suspected.
    • No characteristic ultrasonographic findings have been reported in cases of pharyngeal collapse, soft palate billowing, epiglottic retroversion, axial deviation of the aryepiglottic folds or DDSP.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

  • Related to specific diagnosis.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Satoh M et al (2020) External transcutaneous ultrasound technique in the equine cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscle: Assessment of muscle size and echogenicity with resting endoscopy Equine Vet J 52 (4), 500-508 PubMed.
  • Miller S & Carstens A (2019) Ultrasonographic findings post laryngoplasty in the horse. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 60 (6), 707-716 PubMed.
  • Chalmers H J et al (2015) Ultrasonographic detection of early atrophy of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles of horses. Am J Vet Res 76 (5), 426-436 PubMed.
  • O’ Neill H D et al (2014) Ultrasound-guided biopsy of the cricoarytenoideus lateralis muscle: technique and safety in horses. Equine Vet J 46 (2), 244-248 PubMed.
  • Garrett KS et al (2013) Ultrasound features of arytenoid chondritis in Thoroughbred horses. Equine Vet J 45 (5), 598-603 PubMed.
  • Chalmers H J et al (2012) Diagnostic sensitivity of subjective and quantitative laryngeal ultrasonography for recurrent laryngeal neuropathy in horsesVet Radiol Ultrasound 53 (6), 660-666 PubMed.
  • Chalmers H J et al (2009) Ultrasonographic assessment of laryngohyoid position as a predictor of dorsal displacement of the soft palate in horsesVet Radiol Ultrasound. 50 (1), 91-96 PubMed.
  • Chalmers H J et al (2006) Ultrasonography of the equine larynxVet Radiol Ultrasound 47 (5), 476-481 PubMed.

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