ISSN 2398-2977      

Contrast radiography

pequis

Introduction

  • Contrast radiography is defined as the placement of a radiodense probe (metallic) or contrast material Radiography: contrast media, eg non-ionic, water-soluble compound or barium, into a specific region to highlight certain pathology.
  • This is termed positive contrast radiography because the material used is radiodense and therefore appears opaque on the radiograph. Negative contrast radiography uses air to provide the contrast. Air has minimal radiodensity and therefore appears radiolucent (dark/black) on the radiograph. The use of air and positive contrast together is called a double contrast study and is used in studies of the bladder (cystography).
  • Examples used in the horse include:
    • Arthrography where material is introduced into a joint:
      • Used to evaluate articular cartilage, meniscal damage, subchondral bone defects such as osseous cyst-like lesions Bone: osseous cyst-like lesions, evaluation of osteochondrosis lesions and cartilage flaps, synovial membrane abnormalities including synovioceles, joint capsule problems, chronic joint distension without obvious cause, and differentiation between intra- and extra-articular bone fragments.
      • To ascertain whether wounds near joints have penetrated the synovial cavity.
    • Tenography, where contrast agent is injected into a tendon sheath to evaluate surface pathology of tendons contained within it.
    • Bursography, where contrast agent is injected into a bursa to evaluate bursal swellings and adjacent soft tissue structures .
    • Fistulography Fistulography where contrast material is introduced into a wound or draining tract to highlights the direction and extent of any tract, and its relationship to surrounding critical structures. It may also identify foreign bodies or sequestra within wounds or tracts.
    • Angiography/venography, which is used in the investigation of guttural pouch mycosis Guttural pouch: mycosis and in studying distal limb problems, most commonly laminitis Foot: laminitis.
    • Myelography Myelography where contrast agents are introduced into the spinal canal , usually to define the site or sites of cervical compression in ataxic horses, particularly in cases likely to be treated surgically.
    • Investigation of urine tract abnormalities using pneumocystography and intravenous pyelography.
    • Barium swallows and meals which are used in the gastrointestinal tract , usually in foals, to investigate upper gastrointestinal tract abnormalities, eg suspected intestinal obstruction Gastrointestinal: small intestine - obstruction or gastric ulceration Stomach: gastric ulceration - foal.
    • Dacryorhinocystography Eye: dacryorhinocystography in the nasolacrimal duct in the eye/head to investigate chronic epiphora, orbital trauma, chronic conjunctivitis or proptosis of the 3rd eyelid.

Uses

Advantages

  • Allows structures not normally visible on a plain radiograph to be highlighted.
  • Can identify additional:
    • Structural pathology including soft tissues.
    • Foreign bodies.
    • Obstructions, displacements, distensions, compressions.
    • Vascular pathology.
    • Relationship of wounds to vital structures.
  • Additional costs beyond the production of the radiographs are not excessive.

Disadvantages

  • Can in some cases be an invasive procedure, eg arthrography with the possibility of iatrogenic damage or infection.
  • Inflammatory reaction of the body to the positive contrast agent with adverse consequences, eg following myelography.

Requirements

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Preparation

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Procedure

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Aftercare

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Prognosis

  • Determined by specific case.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Kent A V et al (2020) Improved diagnostic criteria for digital flexor tendon sheath pathology using contrast tenography. Equine Vet J 52 (2), 205-212 PubMed.
  • Bryant H A et al (2019) Use of positive contrast radiography to identify synovial involvement in horses with traumatic limb wounds. Equine Vet J 51 (1), 20-23 PubMed.
  • Mullen K R et al (2015) Adverse reactions in horses that underwent general anesthesia and cervical myelography. J Vet Intern Med 29 (3), 954-960 PubMed.
  • D’Arpe L & Bernardini D (2010) Digital venography in horses and its clinical application in Europe. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 26 (2), 339-359 PubMed.
  • Rose P L et al (2007) Standing myelography in the horse using a nonionic contrast agent. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 48 (6), 535-538 PubMed.
  • Rosenstein D S, Bowker R M & Bartlett P C (2000) Digital angiography of the feet of horses. Am J Vet Res 61 (3), 255-259 PubMed.
  • Lamb C R (1991) Contrast radiography of equine joints, tendon sheaths, and draining tracts. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 7 (2), 241-257 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Butler J A et al (2016) Eds Clinical Radiology of the Horse. 4th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, UK.

Related Images

Want more related items, why not
contact us

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code