ISSN 2398-2977      

Gentamicin

pequis

Introduction

Name

  • Gentamicin.

Class of drug

Description

Chemical name

  • (2R,3R,4R,5R)-2-[(1S,2S,3R,4S,6R)-4,6-diamino-3-[(2R,3R,6S)-3-amino-6-[(1R)-1-(methylamino)ethyl]oxan-2-yl]oxy-2-hydroxycyclohexyl]oxy-5-methyl-4-(methylamino)oxane-3,5-diol.

Molecular formula

  • C21H43N5O7.

Molecular weight

  • 477.6.

Physical properties

  • White amorphous powder.

Storage requirements

  • Sterile solutions of gentamicin sulfate should be stored at 2-8°C/35.6-46.4°F.

Uses

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Indications

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Aminoglycosides are inactivated if combined in vitro with other drugs due to pH incompatibilities.
  • Synergistic against streptococci, Pseudomonas, and other Gram-negative bacteria if combined with ß-lactam antibiotics due to disruption of the bacterial cell wall by the ß-lactam antibiotic.
  • Neuromuscular blocking agents or drugs with neuromuscular blocking activity should not be used concurrently as they increase the risk of neuromuscular blockade, particularly during anesthesia.
  • Other nephrotoxic drugs should be avoided when possible during aminoglycoside therapy.
  • Nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity of aminoglycosides is potentiated by the loop diuretics furosemide and ethacrynic acid and probably other diuretic agents.
  • Concurrent administration with phenylbutazone decreases the gentamicin plasma elimination half-life by 23% and the volume of distribution by 26%.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Schoster A, Amsler M, Kirchgaessner C et al (2021) Gentamicin plasma concentrations in hospitalized horses and retrospective minimal inhibitory concentrations of gram-negative equine pathogens. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 31, 323-330 PubMed.
  • Aleman M R, True A, Scalco R et al (2021) Gentamicin-induced sensorineural auditory loss in healthy adult horses. J Vet Intern Med 35, 2486-2494 PubMed.
  • Launois T, Gonzalez Hilarion L M, Barbe F et al (2019) Use of intravitreal injection of gentamicin in 71 horses with equine recurrent uveitis. J Equine Vet Sci 77, 93-97 PubMed.
  • Bauquier J R, Boston R C, Sweeney R W et al (2015) Plasma peak and trough gentamicin concentrations in hospitalized horses receiving intravenously administered gentamicin. J Vet Intern Med 29,1660-1666 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Plumb D C (2018) Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook. Wiley Blackwell, USA. Website: https://app.plumbs.com.
  • Cole C, Bentz B & Maxwell L (2014) Equine Pharmacology. Wiley Blackwell, USA.
  • Giguère S, Prescott J F & Dowling P M (2013) Eds Antimicrobial Therapy in Veterinary Medicine. 5th ed. Wiley Blackwell, USA.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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