ISSN 2398-2977      

Enrofloxacin

pequis
Contributor(s):

Patricia Dowling

Scott Weese


Introduction

Name

  • Enrofloxacin.

Class of drug

  • Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial.

Description

Chemical name

  • 1-cyclopropyl-7-(4-ethylpiperazin-1-yl)-6-fluoro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid.

Molecular formula

  • C19H22FN3O3.

Molecular weight

  • 359.40.

Physical properties

  • Pale yellow, crystalline powder.
  • Slightly soluble in water. ​

Storage requirements

  • Tablets should be stored in tight containers at temperature less than 30°C/86°F.
  • Protect from direct sunlight.
  • Injectable formulations should be kept at room temperature and should not be refrigerated or frozen. ​

Uses

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Indications

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Adsorbents and antacids containing cations (Mg, Al)

  • May bind to enrofloxacin and prevent its absorption.

Theophylline

  • Enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin interfere with the cytochrome P450 system metabolism of methylxanthines such as theophylline.
  • Serum theophylline concentrations may double and result in CNS and cardiac toxicity, so concentrations must be monitored during therapy.

Probenecid/cisapride

  • Blocks the tubular secretion of enrofloxacin and may increase its blood level and half-life.

Chloramphenicol/rifampin

  • Antagonism between fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicol or rifampin appears to be due to the inhibition of bacterial autolysin synthesis from concurrent administration of bacterial protein synthesis inhibitors.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Ellerbrock R E, Canisso I F, Larsen R J et al (2021) Fluoroquinolone exposure in utero did not affect articular cartilage of resulting foals. Equine Vet J 53, 385-396 PubMed.
  • Ellerbrock R E, Curcio B R, Zhong L et al (2020) Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral administration of enrofloxacin to the late-term pregnant and non-pregnant mares. Equine Vet J 52, 464-470 PubMed.
  • Peyrou M, Bousquet-Melou A, Laroute V et al (2006) Enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin in horses: comparison of pharmacokinetic parameters, use of urinary and metabolite data to estimate first-pass effect and absorbed fraction. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 29, 337-344 PubMed.
  • Yoon J H, Brooks R L Jr, Khan A et al (2004) The effect of enrofloxacin on cell proliferation and proteoglycans in horse tendon cells. Cell Biol Toxicol 20, 41-54 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Plumb D C (2018) Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook. Wiley Blackwell, USA. Website: https://app.plumbs.com.
  • Cole C, Bentz B & Maxwell L (2014) Equine Pharmacology. Wiley Blackwell, USA.
  • Giguère S, Prescott J F & Dowling P M (2013) Eds Antimicrobial Therapy in Veterinary Medicine. 5th edn. Wiley Blackwell, USA.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.
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