ISSN 2398-2977      

Cefazolin

pequis
Contributor(s):

Patricia Dowling

Scott Weese

Synonym(s): Cephazolin


Introduction

Name

  • Cefazolin Na.

Class of drug

  • First generation cephalosporin antibiotic.

Description

Chemical name

  • 6R,7R)-3-[(5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)sulfanylmethyl]-8-oxo-7-[[2-(tetrazol-1-yl)acetyl]amino]-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid.

Molecular formula

  • C14H14N8O4S3.

Molecular weight

  • 454.51 g/mol.

Physical properties

  • Sterile powder.

Storage requirements

  • Following reconstitution with sterile water for injection, bacteriostatic water for injection, or 0.9% sodium chloride injection, solutions containing 225 or 330 mg of cefazolin/ml have a pH of 4.5-6 and are stable for 24 h at room temperature or 96 h at 5°C/41°F.
  • Rapid hydrolysis of the drug occurs when pH exceeds 8.5, and precipitation of the insoluble free acid may occur when pH is <4.5.
  • Solutions containing 2.25-4.5 mg of cefazolin per ml are stable for 24 h at room temperature or 96 h at 5°C/41°F in the following infusion fluids:
    • 0.9% sodium chloride.
    • 5% or 10% dextrose.
    • 5% dextrose.
    • 0.2%, 0.45% or 0.9% sodium chloride.
    • 5% dextrose and lactated Ringer's.
    • Ringer's.
    • Lactated Ringer's.
    • 5% or 10% invert sugar in water.
    • Normosol-M in D5-W.
    • Ionosol B with 5% dextrose.
    • Plasma-Lyte with 5% dextrose.
    • 5% sodium carbonate.

Uses

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Indications

  • Usually active against ß-hemolytic streptococci and against ß-lactamase producing staphylococci, but not against methicillin (oxacillin) resistant staphylococci (MRSA or MRSP).
  • In the absence of acquired resistance, E. coli Escherichia coli and Salmonella Salmonella spp are usually susceptible, as are some Proteus Proteus spp and Klebsiella spp Klebsiella pneumoniae.
  • Although most corynebacteria are susceptible, Rhodococcus equi Rhodococcus equi is usually resistant.
  • Enterococci are inherently resistant to all cephalosporins.
  • Anaerobes are typically susceptible, but Bacteroides spp may be resistant.
  • Pseudomonas spp Pseudomonas spp and Bacteroides spp Bacteroides fragilis are resistant.
  • Due to expense and parenteral administration, systemic use is typically limited to the treatment of septic foals or surgical prophylaxis.
  • May used as intravenous regional perfusion or in antimicrobial impregnated beads for local treatment of musculoskeletal infections.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

With other drugs

Bacteriostatic agents
Probenecid
  • Probenecid reduces the excretion of cephalosporins.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Pezzanite L M, Griffenhagen G M, Krause D M et al (2021) Retrospective evaluation of association between perioperative antimicrobial protocol and complications following elective equine synovial endoscopy. Vet Med Sci 7, 609-620 PubMed.
  • Kuroda T, Minamijima Y, Niwa H et al (2020) Rational dosage regimens for cephalothin and cefazolin using pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics analysis in healthy horses. Equine Vet J 1–11 PubMed.
  • Holcombe S J, Schneider R K, Bramlage L R et al (1997) Use of antibiotic-impregnated polymethyl methacrylate in horses with open or infected fractures or joints: 19 cases (1987-1995). J Am Vet Med Assoc 211, 889-893 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Plumb D C (2018) Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook. Wiley Blackwell, USA. Website: https://app.plumbs.com.
  • Cole C, Bentz B & Maxwell L (2014) Equine Pharmacology. Wiley Blackwell, USA.
  • Giguère S, Prescott J F & Dowling P M (2013) Eds Antimicrobial Therapy in Veterinary Medicine, 5th ed. Wiley Blackwell, USA.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.
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