ISSN 2398-2977      

Therapeutics: antimicrobials


Synonym(s): Antibiotic therapy

Decision steps for antimicrobial use

An holistic approach to disease control is necessary.

Antimicrobial use should not be seen in isolation from management, welfare, hygiene, nutrition, immunology and epidemiology.

Steps to therapeutic success

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Organism factors and culture and sensitivity

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Antimicrobial resistance

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Use of antimicrobial combinations

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Prophylactic use of antimicrobial drugs

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Further Reading


Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Theelen M J P et al (2014) Temporal trends in in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria isolated from foals with sepsis: 1979-2010.  Equine Vet J 46 (2), 161-168 PubMed
  • Corley K T T & Hollis A R (2009) Antimicrobial therapy in neonatal foals. Equine Vet Educ 21 (8), 436-448 VetMedResource.
  • Weese J S (2009) Antimicrobial therapy for difficult to identify and atypical pathogens. Equine Vet Educ 21 (7), 388-392 VetMedResource.
  • Weese J S (2009) Antimicrobial therapy for multidrug resistant pathogens. Equine Vet Educ 21 (6), 328-334.
  • Traub-Dargatz J L & Dargatz D A (2009) Antibacterial drug resistance and equine practice. Equine Vet Educ 21 (1), 49-56 VetMedResource.
  • Haggett E F & Wilson W D (2008) Overview of the use of antimicrobials for the treatment of bacterial infections in horses. Equine Vet Educ 20 (8), 433-448 VetMedResource.
  • Fletcher N, Buckley T & Moore J E (2004) Antibiotic susceptibility patterns from Irish equines. J Equine Vet Sci 24 (4), 136-137 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Dowling P M (2004) Antimicrobial Therapy. In: Equine Clinical Pharmacology. Eds: Bertone J J & Horspool L J I. Saunders, USA. pp 13-47. ISBN: 0 7020 2484 8.
  • Adams H R (2001) EdVeterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Iowa State University Press, USA.
  • Baggot J D (2001) Ed. The Physiological Basis of Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology. Oxford Blackwell Science.
  • Bishop Y (2001) Ed. The Veterinary Formulary. 5th edn. London Pharmaceutical Press in association with the British Veterinary Association.
  • Baggot J D & Prescott (1993) Eds. Antimicrobial Therapy in Veterinary Medicine. Iowa State University Press, USA.

Related Images


Abdomen: adhesions

Abdomen: hernia - incisional

Abdomen: laparoscopy

Abdomen: laparotomy

Abdomen: pain - adult

Abdomen: penetrating wounds

Abdomen: peritoneal lavage

Abdomen: peritonitis

Abdomen: surgical approaches

Abdomen: uroperitoneum

Abdomen: ventral midline hernioplasty

Abortion: EHV-1

Accessory ligament DDFT: desmotomy

Anesthesia: epidural

Anesthesia: pre-anesthetic preparation



Bladder: calculi

Bladder: cystoplasty

Bladder: cystotomy

Bladder: displacement

Bladder: paralysis

Bladder: urinary tract infection

Bone: osteitis - septic

Bone: slab fracture repair - lag screw


Campylobacter spp


Cardiovascular: vein - thrombosis

Carpus: chip removal

Carpus: hygroma

Cecocolic anastomosis

Cecum: torsion

Cecum: typhlectomy

Cecum: typhlotomy



Cervix: trauma

Chemotherapy: complications

Chorioptes infestation (chorioptic mange)

CNS: myeloencephalopathy - EHV

CNS: verminous encephalomyelitis

Colitis X

Colon: displacement - pelvic flexure

Colon: displacement - right dorsal

Colon: resection


Conjunctivitis: chlamydial

Conjunctivitis: parasitic

Copper sulfate

Cornea: debridement



Cranial nuchal bursa bursoscopy

Diaphragm: hernia

Diarrhea: antimicrobial associated

Diarrhea: idiopathic

Digital sheath: tenosynovitis

Dispensing (USA)

Distal phalanx: fracture repair

Distal phalanx: fractures

Distal phalanx: pedal osteitis - septic


Embryo Transfer

Endotoxemia: overview

Endotoxin antiserum


Epiglottis: persistent frenulum

Equine coronavirus infection

Equine herpesvirus

Equine influenza

Equine viral encephalitides


Escherichia coli

Esophagus: esophagostomy

Esophagus: esophagotomy

Esophagus: obstruction

Esophagus: resection and anastomosis

Esophagus: surgical approaches

Esophagus: trauma

Exposure keratopathy

Eye: dermoid excision

Eye: intraocular prosthesis

Eyeball: enucleation - transconjunctival

Eyeball: enucleation - transpalpebral

Eyelid: blepharedema

Eyelid: blepharitis - overview

Eyelid: resection

Eyelid: tarsorrhaphy - temporary

Eyelid: trauma

Eyelid: trauma - contusion and abrasion

Eyelid: trauma - repair

Femur: diaphysis - fracture repair

Femur: physeal fracture - repair


Flexor tendon: trauma

Fluid therapy: overview

Foal: evaluation - neonate

Foal: neonatal septicemia syndrome

Foal: resuscitation and care

Foot: hoof wall - crack repair

Foot: keratoma - resection

Foot: subsolar abscess/infection

Gastrointestinal: clostridiosis

Gastrointestinal: decompression and lavage

Gastrointestinal: enterolith

Gastrointestinal: enterotomy

Gastrointestinal: epiploic foramen hernia

Gastrointestinal: fecalith / bezoar

Gastrointestinal: stricture

Gastrointestinal: tympany/flatulent colic


Guttural pouch: empyema

Hard/soft palate: cleft

Harvest mite infestation

Head: fractures

Head: frontal facial fractures

Heart: endocarditis

Heart: pericarditis

Heart: sinus tachycardia

Humerus: fracture

Hypertrophic osteodystrophy


Hypovolemic shock

Immunology: immunodeficiency - Fell pony syndrome

Immunology: neonatal isoerythrolysis


Inguinal ring: hernia

Intestine: enteritis - anterior

Intestine: resection and anastomosis

Intestine: salmonellosis

Iris: prolapse management

Jejunocolic / ileocolic anastomosis

Jejunum: jejunocecostomy

Jejunum: jejunoileostomy

Jejunum: jejunojejunostomy

Joint: arthroscopy - overview

Joint: septic arthritis - adult

Keratitis: traumatic - ulcerative

Kidney: glomerulonephritis

Kidney: renal failure

Larynx: arytenoid chondritis

Larynx: arytenoidectomy

Larynx: laryngoplasty

Laser surgery: transendoscopic

Lip trauma: repair

Liver disease: overview

Liver: biopsy

Lung: abscess

Lung: biopsy

Lung: EIPH (exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage)

Lung: pleuropneumonia - bacterial (pleuritis)

Lung: pneumonia - bacterial

Lung: pneumonia - interstitial (foals)

Lung: pneumonia - neonatal bacterial


Lymphoma: chemotherapy protocols

Mammary gland: mastitis

Mandible/maxilla: fracture

MC / MT 2 and 4: fracture repair

MC / MT 2 and 4: partial removal

MC / MT 3: condylar fracture repair

MC / MT 3: diaphysis fracture

MC / MT 4: removal

MC/MT 2 and 4: fracture

MCP / MTP joint: arthrodesis

MCP/MTP joint: luxation

Metritis-laminitis-septicemia complex


Moraxella equi

Mouth trauma: repair

Muscle: myopathy - overview

Musculoskeletal: fracture

Mycoplasma spp

Nasal septum: defect

Nasolacrimal duct: nasal puncta opening

Nasolacrimal duct: obstruction - acquired

Navicular bursa: puncture

Nutrition: geriatric

Nutrition: nutritional myopathy

Oak (Quercus spp)

Orbit: fracture repair

Orbit: trauma

Ovary: colpotomy

Ovary: ovariectomy - laparotomy approach


Palmar / plantar annular ligament syndrome

Palmar carpal retinaculum: section

Paranasal sinus: bone flap technique

Paranasal sinus: bone flap technique - standing surgery

Paranasal sinuses: bacterial sinusitis

Parascaris equorum infestation

Pasteurella multocida

Patella: fracture

Patella: luxation


Pemphigus vulgaris

Penis: balanoposthitis

Penis: hematoma

Penis: paraphimosis

Penis: phallectomy - Scott's technique

Penis: phallectomy - Vinscot technique

Penis: phallectomy - William technique

Penis: phallopexy

Penis: trauma

Perineum: reconstruction

Perineum: trauma

Perineum: urethrotomy

Pharynx: cyst - resection

Pharynx: foreign body

Pharynx: ventral pharyngotomy

PIP joint: arthrodesis

PIP joint: luxation and subluxation

Polyneuritis equi


Prepuce: resection

Protein-losing conditions

Proteus spp

Proximal sesamoid: fracture

Proximal sesamoid: fracture - arthroscopic removal

Proximal sesamoid: fracture repair - wire

Pseudomonas spp

Radius: fracture

Radius: fracture repair

Rectum: meconium impaction

Rectum: tear

Rectum: trauma - management and repair

Reproduction: coital exanthema - EHV 3

Reproduction: management - female

Respiratory: EHV infection

Respiratory: exploratory surgery

Respiratory: neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

Respiratory: smoke inhalation

Rhodococcus equi infection

Rib: fracture


Sacrum: fracture

Salmonella spp

Sarcocystis neurona

Scapula: fracture - supraglenoid tubercle

Scapula: fracture repair

Scrotum: trauma

Septic shock

Serratia spp

Skin grafting techniques

Soft palate: palatoplasty

Soft palate: sternothyrohyoid / omohyoid - myectomy

Spine: osteomyelitis

St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum)

Staphylococcus aureus

Sternum: bone graft collection

Stifle: femoropatellar osteochondrosis

Stifle: femorotibial subchondral bone cyst

Strangles (Streptococcus equi infection)

Tarsus: fracture

Teeth: apical infection

Teeth: fracture

Temporohyoid joint osteoarthropathy (THO)

Testis: castration - post-operative complications

Testis: castration - technique

Testis: hematoma

Testis: orchitis

Therapeutics: aminoglycosides

Therapeutics: beta-lactam antibacterials

Therapeutics: cardiovascular system

Therapeutics: chloramphenicol

Therapeutics: eye

Therapeutics: gastrointestinal system

Therapeutics: intra-uterine

Therapeutics: macrolides / lincosamides

Therapeutics: nitrofurans - nitroimidazoles - quinolones

Therapeutics: reproductive system

Therapeutics: skin

Therapeutics: sulfonamides

Therapeutics: tetracyclines

Third eyelid: flap

Third eyelid: trauma - repair

Thorax: thoracocentesis

Thorax: thoracoscopy

Tibia: bone graft collection

Tibia: fracture - diaphyseal

Tongue trauma: repair

Toxicity: cantharidin

Toxicity: lead

Toxicity: mercury

Toxicity: snakebite

Trachea: foreign body

Trachea: stenosis

Trachea: transtracheal aspiration / washing

Tuber coxae: bone graft collection

Ulna: fracture

Ulna: fracture repair

Umbilicus: hernia (strangulating)

Umbilicus: herniorrhaphy

Ureter: neoureterostomy

Urine: hematuria

Urine: pH

Uterus: contagious equine metritis

Uterus: endometritis - bacterial

Uterus: endoscopy

Uterus: hydrops/hydroallantois/hydroamnios

Uterus: prolapse

Uveitis: bacterial

Vagina: bacterial infection


Vesicular stomatitis

Vulva: Pouret operation

Wound: post-operative care

Zinc Sulfate

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