ISSN 2398-2977      

Therapeutics: anti-inflammatory drugs


Synonym(s): NSAIDS, corticosteroids


  • Anti-inflammatory drugs are used to reduce the signs of acute inflammation.
  • Usually   →   relieve pain and reduce swelling.
  • For the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders, anti-inflammatories act upon inflammatory mediators and modulators, eg:
    • Histamine.
    • Bradykinin.
    • Prostaglandins.
    • Leukotrienes.
    • Thromboxanes.
    • Platelet-activating factor.
    • Complement components.
    • Lysosomal and non-lysosomal enzymes.
    • Nitric oxide.
    • Oxygen derived free radicals.
  • Action may only suppress, not abolish, inflammatory effects of mediators.
  • For the treatment of skin conditions   Therapeutics: skin  , oral corticosteroids are useful acutely and for chronic disease (where alternate-day therapy is necessary to avoid adrenal suppression).

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

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Further Reading


Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • McIlwraith C W (2010) The use of intra-articular corticosteroids in the horse: What is known on a scientific basis? Equine Vet J 42 (6), 563-571 PubMed.
  • Fennell L C & Franklin R P (2009) Do non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs administered at therapeutic dosages induce gastric ulcers in horses? Equine Vet Educ 21 (12), 660-662.
  • Schleining J A & Reinertson E L (2007) Evidence for dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) use in horses. Part 2: DMSO as a parenteral anti-inflammatory agent  and as a pharmacological carrier. Equine Vet Educ 19 (11), 598-599.

Other sources of information

  • Kollais-Baker C & Cox K (2004) Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory drugs. In: Equine Clinical Pharmacology. Eds: Bertone J J & Horspool L J I. Saunders, UK. pp 247-265.
  • Derived from The Veterinary Formulary (2001) 5th edn. Ed: Bishop Y. British Veterinary Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Society.


Abdomen: adhesions

Abdomen: hernia - incisional

Abdomen: laparoscopy

Abdomen: pain - adult

Abdomen: peritoneal lavage

Abdomen: peritonitis

Abdomen: surgical approaches

Abdomen: ventral midline hernioplasty

Abortion: overview

Accessory carpal: fracture

Accessory ligament DDFT: desmotomy

Accessory ligament DDFT: forelimb - desmitis

Acetylsalicylic acid

Adnexal lymphoma


Anesthesia: analgesia - overview

Anesthesia: recovery - overview



Bladder: cystorrhaphy

Bladder: cystotomy

Bladder: displacement

Bladder: urinary tract infection

Bone: physitis

Bone: slab fracture repair - lag screw


Cardiovascular: aortoiliac thrombosis

Cardiovascular: vein - thrombosis


Carpus: chip removal

Carpus: fracture - chip

Carpus: fracture - comminuted

Carpus: fracture - slab

Carpus: hygroma

Carpus: osteochondroma

Carpus: sheath tenosynovitis

Cecocolic anastomosis



Cervix: trauma

Chemotherapy: complications


Clitoris: surgery

CNS: verminous encephalomyelitis

Cold therapy

Colon: displacement - right dorsal

Conjunctivitis: allergic

Conjunctivitis: parasitic

Contrast radiography



Coxofemoral joint: disease - overview

Cranial nuchal bursa bursoscopy


Cyathostomins: small strongyles

Deep digital flexor tendon: tendinitis

Deep digital flexor tendon: tenotomy



Diarrhea: antimicrobial associated

Diarrhea: idiopathic

Digital sheath: tenosynovitis

Dimethyl sulfoxide

DIP joint: flexural deformity

Distal phalanx: fractures

Distal phalanx: pedal osteitis - non-septic

Distal phalanx: pedal osteitis - septic




Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis virus

Elbow: hygroma


Embryo Transfer

Emergency resuscitation

Endotoxemia: overview

Equine coronavirus infection

Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hyperplasia

Equine viral arteritis (EVA)

Equine viral encephalitides

Esophagus: esophagostomy

Esophagus: esophagotomy

Esophagus: obstruction

Esophagus: surgical approaches

Esophagus: trauma

Ethmoid: hematoma

Extensor carpi radialis muscle: rupture

Eye: glaucoma

Eyelid: blepharedema

Eyelid: blepharitis - overview

Eyelid: tarsorrhaphy - temporary

Eyelid: trauma

Eyelid: trauma - contusion and abrasion

Eyelid: trauma - repair

Femur: diaphysis - fracture repair

Femur: physeal fracture - repair

Fluid therapy: acute renal failure


Flunixin meglumine

Foal: resuscitation and care

Foot: laminitis

Foot: lateral cartilage calcification (sidebone)

Foot: sole bruising

Foot: subsolar abscess/infection

Gastrointestinal: clostridiosis

Gastrointestinal: decompression and lavage

Gastrointestinal: enterotomy

Gastrointestinal: ileus

Grass sickness

Guttural pouch: empyema

Hard / soft palate: cleft - surgery

Hard/soft palate: cleft

Harvest mite infestation

Head: fractures

Head: frontal facial fractures

Head: trephination

Heart: endocarditis

Heat therapy



Hyoscine butylbromide


Hypertrophic osteodystrophy

Insect hypersensitivity

Intestine: enteritis - anterior

Intestine: resection and anastomosis

Intestine: salmonellosis

Iris: prolapse management

Isoflupredone acetate

Jejunocolic / ileocolic anastomosis

Jejunum: jejunocecostomy

Jejunum: jejunoileostomy

Jejunum: jejunojejunostomy

Joint: arthroscopy - overview

Joint: immune-mediated polysynovitis

Joint: septic arthritis - foal

Keratitis: bacterial

Keratitis: mycotic


Kidney: renal failure

Larynx: arytenoid chondritis

Larynx: arytenoidectomy

Larynx: laryngoplasty

Larynx: ventriculocordectomy

Laser surgery: transendoscopic


Lip trauma: repair

Lung: EIPH (exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage)

Lung: pleuropneumonia - bacterial (pleuritis)

Lung: pneumonia - interstitial (foals)

Lung: pneumonia - neonatal bacterial

Magnetic resonance imaging

Male: lack of libido

Male: mounting/intromission difficulty

Mammary gland: mastitis

MC / MT 2 and 4: fracture repair

MC / MT 2 and 4: partial removal

MC / MT 3: condylar fracture

MC / MT 3: dorsal metacarpal disease

MC/MT 2 and 4: fracture

MC/MT 2 and 4: periostitis (splints)

MCP / MTP joint: arthrodesis

MCP / MTP joint: chronic proliferative synovitis

MCP / MTP joint: flexural deformity

Meclofenamic acid



Moraxella equi

Muscle: myopathy - atypical

Muscle: myopathy - overview

Muscle: myopathy - postanesthetic

Muscle: myopathy - sporadic exertional rhabdomyolysis

Musculoskeletal: back pain

Musculoskeletal: flexural deformity

Musculoskeletal: fracture - first aid

Musculoskeletal: osteoarthritis (joint disease)


Nasolacrimal duct: nasal puncta opening

Nasolacrimal duct: obstruction - acquired

Navicular bone: suspensory desmotomy

Navicular bone: syndrome

Navicular bursa: puncture

Nutrition: nutritional myopathy

Onchocerca cervicalis

Optic nerve: neuropathy - trauma

Orbit: fracture repair

Orbit: trauma

Ovary: colpotomy

Ovary: ovariectomy - laparotomy approach


Palmar / plantar annular ligament syndrome

Palmar carpal retinaculum: section

Palmar digital nerve: neurectomy

Patella: fracture

Patella: fragmentation

Patella: luxation

Pelvis: fracture

Penis: hematoma

Penis: paraphimosis

Penis: phallectomy - Scott's technique

Penis: phallectomy - Vinscot technique

Penis: phallectomy - William technique

Penis: phallopexy

Penis: trauma

Percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

Perineum: reconstruction

Perineum: trauma

Perineum: urethrotomy

Peri-operative lidocaine infusion: IV

Peripheral nerve: trauma

Pharynx: cyst - resection

Pharynx: foreign body



Physical urticaria

PIP joint: arthrodesis

PIP joint: luxation and subluxation

PIP joint: osteoarthritis

Placenta: retained

Polydipsia / polyuria

Potomac Horse Fever



Prepubic tendon: rupture

Prepuce: resection

Protein-losing conditions

Proximal sesamoid: fracture

Proximal sesamoid: fracture repair - wire

Radius: fracture repair


Rectum: meconium impaction

Rectum: trauma - management and repair

Respiratory: meconium aspiration

Respiratory: neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

Rhodococcus equi infection

Rib: fracture

Sacrum: fracture

Sarcocystis neurona

Scapula: fracture - supraglenoid tubercle

Scapula: fracture repair

Sciatic nerve: paralysis

Scrotum: trauma

SDFT: luxation

Septic shock

Severe equine asthma

Skin: onchocerciasis

Soft palate: dorsal displacement

Soft palate: sclerotherapy

Soft palate: sternothyrohyoid / omohyoid - myectomy

Soft palate: sternothyroid myotomy and staphylectomy

Spinal cord: trauma

Spine: radiography

Sternum: bone graft collection

Stifle: arthroscopy

Stifle: femoropatellar osteochondrosis

Stifle: femorotibial subchondral bone cyst

Stifle: trauma - collateral ligament

Stifle: trauma - cruciate ligament

Stomach: gastric ulceration

Straight sesamoidean ligament: desmitis

Strangles (Streptococcus equi infection)

Suspensory ligament: desmitis - midbody

Suspensory ligament: desmitis - proximal

Synovial hernia and ganglion

Tarsus: desmitis - plantar ligament

Tarsus: fracture

Tarsus: tarsal sheath tenosynovitis

Temporohyoid joint osteoarthropathy (THO)

Temporomandibular joint: fracture

Testis: castration - post-operative complications

Testis: orchitis

Therapeutics: eye

Therapeutics: gastrointestinal system

Therapeutics: immune system

Therapeutics: skin

Third eyelid: flap

Third eyelid: trauma - repair

Thorax: thoracoscopy

Thorax: thoracotomy

Tibia: bone graft collection

Tongue trauma: repair

Toxicity: aminoglycoside

Toxicity: arsenic

Toxicity: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID)

Toxicity: snakebite

Trachea: stenosis

Trachea: tracheostomy - permanent

Trachea: transtracheal aspiration / washing

Transvenous cardioversion


Tuber coxae: bone graft collection

Ulna: fracture

Ulna: fracture repair

Umbilicus: herniorrhaphy

Ureter: neoureterostomy

Urine: anuria/oliguria

Urine: overview


Uveitis: anterior - neoplasia-induced

Uveitis: anterior - overview

Uveitis: bacterial

Uveitis: reflex

Uveitis: traumatic

Vagina: bacterial infection



Vulva: Pouret operation

Wound: immobilization

Wound: post-operative care

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