ISSN 2398-2977      

Stomach: impaction

pequis

Synonym(s): Gastric impaction, gastric obstruction


Introduction

  • Definition: abnormal accumulation of dry, poorly fermentable ingesta.
  • Cause: accumulated dry/fibrous ingesta,  irregular feeding, dental disease, defective gastric secretion, gastric atony, persimmon seeds, mesquite beans, pyloric stenosis, foreign bodies, grain overload, squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach (rare), parasitism, egGasterophilus nasalislarvae (rare), or secondary to hepatic disease, egSeneciotoxicity.
  • Signs: vary from mild (chronic colic) to severe unrelenting abdominal pain (acute colic), bruxism, anorexia, dyspahgia and loss of condition. 
  • Diagnosis: gastroscopy, radiography, laparotomy +/- gastrotomy, necropsy.
  • Treatment: gastric lavage with nasogastric tube (while standing under general anesthesia), external massage of the stomach, hydration of the impaction by a needle directly into the stomach through the greater curvature, gastrotomy and removal of ingesta/obstruction.
  • Prognosis: varies from good, if no other obstructive lesions are found in the small intestine, to guarded, if gastrotomy performed or secondary to squamous cell carcinoma, pyloric stenosis or hepatic disease.

Pathogenesis

Pathophysiology

  • Acute obstruction following ingestion of fibrous or dry food   →   expands, eg persimmon seeds and mesquite beans.
  • Chronic accumulation of fibrous food may permit some outflow of liquid material to pylorus.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma can cause a delay of gastric emptying, but it is a rare cause of colic.
  • Pyloric stenosis can be congenital or acquired (gastroduodenal ulceration) may cause obstruction.
  • Heavy infestation withGasterophilus nasalis larvae    Stomach: gasterophilus infestation   at the pylorus may   →   gastritis + pyloric swelling   →    obstruction to gastric outflow. 
  • Secondary toSeneciopoisoning    Toxicity: pyrrolizidine alkaloid      →   liver damage    Liver: hepatotoxicosis   or chronic gastric distension.

Signs of liver failure more common.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Freeman D E (2011) Gastric impaction. Equine Vet Educ 23 (4), 174-176 VetMedResource.
  • Parker R A, Barr E D & Dixon P M (2011) Treatment of equine gastric impaction by gastrotomy. Equine Vet Educ 23 (4), 169-173 VetMedResource.
  • Vainio K, Sykes B W & Blikslager A T (2011) Primary gastric impaction in horses: A retrospective study of 20 cases (2005-2008). Equine Vet Educ 23 (4), 186-190 VetMedResource.
  • McGorum B C, Murphy D, Love S & Milne E M (1999) Clinicopathological features of equine primary hepatic disease - a review of 50 cases. Vet Rec 145 (5), 134-139 PubMed.
  • Cummings C A et al (1997) Equine gastric impaction, ulceration, and perforation due to persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) ingestion. J Vet Diagn Invest (3), 311-313 PubMed.
  • White II N A & Dabareiner R M (1997) Treatment of impaction colics. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 13, 249 PubMed.
  • Milne E M et al (1992) Secondary gastric impaction associated with ragwort poisoning in three ponies. Vet Rec 126, 502-504 PubMed.
  • Murray M J (1992) Gastric ulceration in horses - 91 cases (1987-1990). JAVMA 201 (1), 117-120 PubMed.
  • Owen R A, Jagger D W & Jagger F (1987) Two cases of equine primary gastric impaction. Vet Rec 121 (5), 102-105 PubMed.
  • Honnas C M & Schumacher J (1985) Primary gastric impaction in a pony. JAVMA 187 (5), 501-502 PubMed.
  • Barclay W P et al (1982) Primary gastric impaction in the horse. JAVMA 181, 682-683 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Eric Mueller P O, Moore J N & Divers T J (2003) Disorders of the Stomach. In: Manual of Equine Emergencies: Treatment and Procedures. Eds: Orsini J A & Divers T J. W B Saunders, USA. pp 206-207.
  • Merritt A M & Campbell-Thompson M (1999) Disease of the Stomach. In: Manual of Equine Medicine and Surgery. Ed: King C. Mosby Inc, USA. pp 200-203.
  • Vatistas N J (1999) The Stomach. In:Equine Surgery. Eds: Auer J A & Stick J A. W B Saunders, USA. pp 213-214.
  • Robertson J T (1990) Diseases of the Stomach. In: The Equine Acute Abdomen. Ed: White II N A. Lea & Febiger, USA. pp 338-346.
  • Carter G K (1987) Gastric diseases. In: Current Therapy in Equine Practice. 2nd edn. Ed: Robinson N E. W B Saunders, USA. pp 41-44.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code