ISSN 2398-2977      

Skin: staphylococcal folliculitis

pequis

Synonym(s): Acne, Heat rash, Saddle scab, Summer rash, Summer scab, Sweating eczema, Saddle boils, Grease heel, Scratches, Tail rot


Introduction

  • Inflammation of the hair follicle caused by Staphylococcal bacteria.
  • CauseStaphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus sppS. intermediusS. hyicus.
  • Signs: papules, pustules, crusts, scales, nodules and annular areas of alopecia more commonly over the saddle and tack areas.
  • Diagnosis: history, examination, cytology, bacterial culture, histopathology.
  • Treatment: topical antibacterial agents, systemic antibiotics.
  • Prognosis: good.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus aureus is the most common, followed by S. intermedius, and rarely S. hyicus.
  • Less commonly coagulase-negative Staphylococci.
  • Staphylococcus spp Staphylococcus spp are part of the normal skin flora but may also be opportunistic pathogens.

Predisposing factors

General

Pathophysiology

  • Bacterial infection of the hair follicle secondary to cutaneous trauma.
  • Advanced lesions may → rupture of the hair follicle (furunculosis) with corresponding dermal inflammation.
  • Damage to skin, eg insect bite, trauma → staphylococcal bacteria invades and infects the hair follicle → small papule forms and overlying hairs may become erect → a pustule may arise from the papule, rupture and form a crust or → papule enlarges and may develop a central ulcer with purulent discharge → hair follicle may eventually rupture resulting in free hair shafts in the dermis (furunculosis) and an inflammatory foreign body reaction.
  • Bacterial toxins may act as superantigens and trigger an immunologic response.

Epidemiology

  • Can be spread via fomites, eg shared tack.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Weese J S & Yu A A (2013) Infectious folliculitis and dermatophytosis. Vet Clin Equine 29 (3), 559-575 PubMed.
  • Marsella R & Akucewich L (2007) Investigation on the clinical efficacy and tolerability of a 0,4% topical stannous fluoride preparation (MedEquine© Gel) for the treatment of bacterial skin infections in horses: a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Vet Dermatol 18 (6), 444-450 PubMed.
  • Pilsworth R C & Knottenbelt D C (2007) Bacterial folliculitis. Equine Vet Educ 19 (6), 324-325 VetMedResource.
  • Cook C P, Scott D W, Erb H N & Miller W H Jr (2005) Bacteria and fungi on the surface and within noninflamed hair follicles of skin biopsy specimens from horses with healthy skin or inflammatory dermatoses. Vet Dermatol 16 (1), 47-51 PubMed.
  • Fadok V A (1995) An overview of equine dermatoses characterized by scaling and crusting. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract Derm 11 (1), 43-51 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Scott D W & Miller W H (2011) Equine Dermatology. 2nd edn. Saunders, USA.
  • Knottenbelt D C (2009) Pascoe’s Principles and Practice of Equine Dermatology. 2nd edn. Saunders, USA.
  • Smith B P (1996) Large Animal Internal Medicine. Mosby, USA.
  • Scott D W (1988) Large Animal Dermatology. W B Saunders, USA.

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