ISSN 2398-2977      

Epiglottis: epiglottitis - acute

pequis

Synonym(s): Epiglottiditis


Introduction

  • Inflammation of the epiglottic cartilage   →   respiratory problems   →    medical emergency. 
  • Cause: unknown.
  • Signs: most horses present with exercise intolerance, abnormal respiratory noises and/or coughing.
  • Diagnosis: made using endoscopy where mucosal ulceration and thickening of the epiglottic cartilage can be seen.
  • Treatment: medical treatment is usually successful.
  • Prognosis: 50% of affected horses may experience performance limiting complications such as epiglottic deformities, epiglottic entrapment, septic epiglottic chondritis with abscessation, granuloma formation and intermittent or persistent DDSP.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Unknown.

Predisposing factors

General
  • None certain but thought to include:
    • Pharyngeal inflammation from respiratory tract infection or inhaled allergens, eg dirt tracks.
    • Intermittent dorsal displacement of the soft palate   Soft palate: dorsal displacement      Soft palate: dorsal displacement 02 - endoscopy  .
    • Epiglottic entrapment   Larynx: epiglottic entrapment      Epiglottis: entrapment 02 - endoscopy  ulceration  .
    • Trauma from ingested foreign bodies.

Pathophysiology

  • Edema, hyperemia of mucosa    Epiglottis: epiglottitis 01 - endoscopy    Epiglottis: epiglottitis 02 - endoscopy  .
  • Chondritis of the epiglottic cartilage.
  • Granulation tissue formation.
  • Epiglottic inflammation and dorsal elevation of epiglottic axis may be severe enough to cause partial respiratory obstruction    Epiglottis: epiglottitis 01 - endoscopy    Epiglottis: epiglottitis 02 - endoscopy  .

Timecourse

  • Most commonly sub-acute (racehorses) taking weeks to develop clinical signs.
  • Occasionally acute, eg after trauma from foreign bodies hours to days before clinical signs noted.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Infernuso T, Watts A E & Ducharme N G (2006) Septic epiglottic chondritis with abscessation in 2 young Thoroughbred racehorses. Can Vet J 47, 1007-1010 PubMed.
  • Dacre K J, Pirie R S & Prince D R (2004) Primary epiglottitis with associated dysphagia in a foal. Equine Vet Educ 16 (6), 296-301 VetMedResource.
  • Dixon P M & Collins N (2004) The equine epiglottis. Equine Vet Educ 16 (6), 299-301 VetMedResource.
  • Davenport-Goodall C & Parente E J (2003) Disorders of the larynx. Vet Clin North Am Eq Pract 19, 169-187 PubMed.
  • Hawkins J F & Tulleners E P (1994) Epiglottitis in horses: 20 cases (1988-1993). JAVMA 205 (11), 1577-1580 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Dixon P M (2006) Miscellaneous Disorders of the Larynx and Epiglottis. In: Equine Respiratory Medicine & Surgery. Eds: McGorum B C, Robinson N E, Schumacher J & Dixon P M. Elsevier, UK. ISBN: 0702027596.

Related Images

Want more related items, why not
contact us

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code