ISSN 2398-2977      

Staphylococcus spp

pequis

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Family: Micrococcaceae.
  • GenusStaphylococcus.

Etymology

  • Gk: staphule - bunch of grapes; Gk: kokkos - grain, berry, seed.

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Many commensals on mucosal and skin surfaces.

Transmission

  • Endogenous infection.
  • Infection from environment.

Pathological effects

  • Some species kill leukocytes.
  • Cell envelope constituents may be antiphagocytic.
  • Peptidoglycan and cell-mediated immunity intensify the inflammatory response in abscesses.
  • Cell-mediated immunity localizes infection.
  • Clearance depends on phagocytosis.
  • Immunodeficient animals have frequent infections.
  • No lasting immunity after recovery.
  • Pathogenic staphylococci usually coagulase-positive.
  • Range of other enzymes and toxins such as leukocidin, alpha toxin, capsule, peptidoglycan, adhesins.
  • Typically form abscesses or cause dermatitis Skin: staphylococcal folliculitis.
  • Botryomycosis Botryomycosis: chronic, ulcerative wound infection with fibrosis and suppuration.
  • Cellulitis in limbs of thoroughbred Thoroughbred racehorses.
  • Abortion Abortion: overview and mastitis Mammary gland: mastitis in mares.
  • MRSA Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus wound infections following surgery or hospitalization.

Other Host Effects

  • Coagulase-positive species commensal on skin and upper respiratory tract.
  • Coagulase-negative species part of normal skin flora.

Control

Control via animal

  • Drain and irrigate abscesses.
  • Topical antiseptics.

Control via chemotherapies

  • Antibiotic resistance common; susceptibility testing helpful.

Vaccination

  • None commercially available.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Roudaud M, Allano M, Fairbrother J H & Sauvé F (2020) A retrospective study on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp isolated from horses admitted to a Canadian veterinary teaching hospital between 2008 and 2018. Can Vet J 61 (11), 1197-1202 PubMed.
  • Akridge H D et al (2013) Evaluation of the affinity of various species and strains of Staphylococcus to adhere to equine corneocytes. Vet Derm 24 (5), 525-e124 PubMed.
  • Couto N et al (2013) Biocide and antimicrobial susceptibility of methicillin-resistant staphylococcal isolates from horses. Vet Microbiol 166 (1-2), 299-303 PubMed.
  • Maddox T W et al (2012) Cross-sectional study of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in horses. Part 1: Prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureusEquine Vet J 44 (3), 289-296 PubMed.
  • Maddox T W et al (2012) Cross-sectional study of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in horses. Part 2: Risk factors for faecal carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in horses. Equine Vet J 44 (3), 297-303 PubMed.
  • Greenberg S M et al (2011) Unilateral orbital lacrimal gland abscess in a horse. Vet Ophthal 14 (1), 55-60 PubMed.
  • Adams M K et al (2010) The bacteria isolated from the skin of 20 horses at a veterinary teaching hospital. J Equine Vet Sci 30 (12), 687-695 PubMed.
  • Hesselbarth J & Schwarz S (1995) Comparative ribotyping of Staphylococcus intermedius from dogs, pigeons, horses and mink. Vet Microbiol 45 (1), 11-17 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • McVey D S, Kennedy M A & Chengappa M M (2013) Veterinary Microbiology. 3rd edn. Wiley-Blackwell, USA.
  • Biberstein E L (1990) Staphylococci. In: Review of Veterinary Microbiology. Eds: E L Biberstein & Y C Lee. Wiley-Blackwell, USA. pp 150-156. ISBN: 0865420858.

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