ISSN 2398-2942      

Trimethoprim

icanis

Introduction

Name

  • Trimethoprim/Sulfonamide.

Class of drug

  • Potentiated sulfonamide antibiotic.

Uses

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Indications

  • Many organisms are susceptible including Nocardia Nocardia sppBrucella Brucella canis, gram-negative bacilli, some gram-positive organisms (Streptococci spp Streptococcus sppPneumocystis carinii Pneumocystis cariniiToxoplasma gondii Toxoplasma gondii and coccidial species Coccidioides immitis).
  • Pseudomonas spp Pseudomonas and Leptospira spp are usually resistant.
  • Trimethoprim/sulfonamide is useful in the management of urinary, respiratory tract and prostatic infections, but are ineffective in the presence of necrotic tissue.
  • Trimethoprin alone may be used for urinary, prostatic Acute prostatitis, systemic salmonella and respiratory tract infections.
  • Fewer adverse effects are seen with trimethoprim alone.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Warfarin

  • The anticoagulant effect of warfarin Warfarin may be enhanced by trimethoprim/sulfonamide.

Antacids

  • May decrease the bioavailability of sulfonamides if administered concurrently.
  • Although sulfonamides may displace other plasma protein-bound drugs such as methotrexate, oral hypoglycemics, phenylbutazone Phenylbutazone , phenytoin Phenytoin , probenecid , thiazide diuretics and salicylates Acetyl salicylic acid , the clinical relevance of such interactions is unclear. However, patients should be monitored for enhanced effects of displaced agents.
  • Concomitant use of drugs containing procaine Procainamide may inhibit sulfonamide action.

with diagnostic tests

  • When using the Jaffe alkaline picrate reaction assay for creatinine determination trimethoprim/sulfonamide may cause an over estimation of approximately 10%.
  • Sulfonamides may give false-positive results for urine glucose determinations when using the Benedict’s method.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Wilcke J R (1988) Therapeutic application of sulfadiazine/trimethoprim in dogs and cats - a review. Comp Cont Ed 2, 3-8.

Other sources of information

  • Plumb D C (2011) Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook. 7th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, Iowa 
  • Based on Small Animal Formulary. Tennant B (1999) 3rd edn. BSAVA, UK.
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