ISSN 2398-2942      

Therapeutics: periodontal disease

icanis

Introduction

  • The following article will review responsible antibiotic use in patients with periodontal disease, treatment options for the primary care practitioner beyond scaling and polishing for patients with early periodontal disease and for alveolar ridge preservation post-extractions. VOHC (Veterinary Oral Health Council) approved methods for plaque and tartar control, as well host modulation therapy will also be discussed. Please be aware that regulations for the medications discussed may vary for this species in different countries. 

Antibiotics

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Other methods of plaque and tartar control

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Perioceutics

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Gingivectomy and gingivoplasty

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Alveolar ridge preservation 

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Host immune modulation

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Lowe C, Anthony J (2020) Pilot study of the effectiveness of a xylitol-based drinking water additive to reduce plaque and calculus accumulation in dogs. Can Vet J 61(1), 63-68 PubMed
  • Martel D P, Fox P R, Lamb K E, Carmichael D T (2019) Comparison of closed root planing with versus without concurrent doxycycline hyclate or clindamycin hydrochloride gel application for the treatment of periodontal disease in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 254(3), 373-379 PubMed
  • Schmid R D, Hovda L R (2016) Acute hepatic failure in a dog after xylitol ingestion. J Med Toxicol 12, 201-205 PubMed.  
  • Watanabe K, Kijima S, Nonaka C, Matsukawa Y, Yamazoe K (2016) Inhibitory effect for proliferation of oral bacteria in dogs by tooth brushing and application of toothpaste. J Vet Med Sci 78(7), 1205-1208 PubMed.  
  • Harvey C, Serfilippi L, Barnvos D (2015) Effect of Frequency of Brushing Teeth on Plaque and Calculus Accumulation, and Gingivitis in Dogs. J Vet Dent 32(1),16-21 PubMed.   
  • Khazandi M, Bird P S, Owens J et al (2014) In vitro efficacy of cefovecin against anaerobic bacteria isolated from subgingival plaque of dogs and cats with periodontal disease. Anaerobe 28, 104-108 PubMed
  • O Neill D G, Church D B, McGreevy P D, Thomson P C, Brodbelt D C (2014) Prevalence of disorders recorded in dogs attending primary-care veterinary practices in England. PLoS One 9(3), e90501 PubMed
  • Kim S E, Kim S, Jeong M et al (2013) Experimental determination of a subantimicrobial dosage of doxycycline hyclate for treatment of periodontitis in Beagles. Am J Vet Res 74(1), 130-135 PubMed.  
  • Lommer M J (2013) Efficacy of cyclosporine for chronic, refractory stomatitis in cats: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical study. J Vet Dent 30(1), 8-17 PubMed.  
  • Sitzman C (2013) Evaluation of a hydrophilic gingival dental sealant in beagle dogs. J Vet Dent 30(3), 150-155 PubMed.  
  • Quest B W (2013) Oral health benefits of a daily dental chew in dogs. J Vet Dent 30(2), 84-87 PubMed.
  • Johnston T P, Mondal P, Pal D, MacGee S, Stromberg A J, Alur H (2011) Canine periodontal disease control using a clindamycin hydrochloride gel. J Vet Dent 28(4), 224-229 PubMed
  • Wilson W, Taubert KA, Gewitz M et al (2008) Prevention of infective endocarditis: guidelines from the American Heart Association: a guideline from the American Heart Association Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis and Kawasaki Disease Committee, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group. J Am Dent Assoc 139 Suppl, 3S-24S PubMed.  
  • Radice M, Martino PA, Reiter A M (2006) Evaluation of subgingival bacteria in the dog and susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics. J Vet Dent 23(4), 219-224 PubMed
  • Gengler W R, Kunkle B N, Romano D, Larsen D (2005) Evaluation of a barrier dental sealant in dogs. J Vet Dent 22(3),157-159 PubMed.  
  • Roudebush P, Logan E, Hale F A (2005) Evidence-based veterinary dentistry: a systematic review of homecare for prevention of periodontal disease in dogs and cats. J Vet Dent 22(1), 6-15 PubMed.  
  • Hennet P (2002) Effectiveness of a dental gel to reduce plaque in beagle dogs. J Vet Dent 19(1),11-14 PubMed
  • Logan E I, Finney O, Hefferren J J (2002) Effects of a dental food on plaque accumulation and gingival health in dogs. J Vet Dent 19(1), 15-18 PubMed
  • Zetner K, Rothmueller G (2002) Treatment of periodontal pockets with doxycycline in beagles. Vet Ther 3(4), 441-452 PubMed
  • Allan I, Newman H, Wilson M (2001) Antibacterial activity of particulate bioglass against supra- and subgingival bacteria. Biomaterials 22(12), 1683-1687 PubMed.  
  • Clarke D E (2001) Clinical and microbiological effects of oral zinc ascorbate gel in cats. J Vet Dent 18(4), 177-183 PubMed.  
  • Bowersock T L, Wu C C, Inskeep G A et al (2000) Prevention of bacteremia in dogs undergoing dental scaling by prior administration of oral clindamycin or chlorhexidine oral rinse. J Vet Dent 17(1),11-16 PubMed
  • Hall E E, Meffert R M, Hermann J S, Mellonig J T, Cochran D L (1999) Comparison of bioactive glass to demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft in the treatment of intrabony defects around implants in the canine mandible. J Periodontol 70(5), 526-535 PubMed.  
  • Rawlings J M, Gorrel C, Markwell P J (1998) Effect on canine oral health of adding chlorhexidine to a dental hygiene chew. J Vet Dent 15(3), 129-134 PubMed.
  • DeForge D H (1997) Evaluation of Bioglass/PerioGlas (Consil) synthetic bone graft particulate in the dog and cat. J Vet Dent 14(4), 141-145 PubMed.  
  • Polson A M, Southard G L, Dunn R L, Yewey G L, Godowski K C, Polson A P, Fulfs J C, Laster L (1996) Periodontal pocket treatment in beagle dogs using subgingival doxycycline from a biodegradable system. I. Initial clinical responses. J Periodontol 67(11), 1176-1184 PubMed
  • Harvey C E, Thornsberry C, Miller B R et al (1995) Antimicrobial susceptibility of subgingival bacterial flora in cats with gingivitis. J Vet Dent 12, 157-160 PubMed.   
  • Harvey C E, Thornsberry C, Miller B R et al (1995) Antimicrobial susceptibility of subgingival bacterial flora in dogs with gingivitis. J Vet Dent 12, 151-155 PubMed.    
  • Harvey C E, Thornsberry C, Miller B R (1995) Subgingival bacteria--comparison of culture results in dogs and cats with gingivitis. J Vet Dent 12(4),147-150 PubMed.
  • Jensen L, Logan E, Finney O, Lowry S, Smith M, Hefferren J, Simone A, Richardson D (1995) Reduction in accumulation of plaque, stain, and calculus in dogs by dietary means. J Vet Dent 12(4), 161-163 PubMed
  • Stookey G K, Warrick J M, Miller L L (1995) Effect of sodium hexametaphosphate on dental calculus formation in dogs. Am J Vet Res 56(7), 913-918 PubMed.
  • Howell T H, Fiorellini J, Weber H P, Williams R C (1991) Effect of the NSAID piroxicam, topically administered, on the development of gingivitis in beagle dogs. J Periodontal Res 26(3 Pt 1), 180-183 PubMed.  
  • Briner W W, Gibberman B P, Leonard G J (1980) Effect of chlorhexidine on plaque, gingivitis and alveolar bone loss in beagle dogs after seven years of treatment. J Periodont Res 15, 390-394 PubMed.  

Other sources of information

  • Sarkiala E M (2020) Use of antibiotics and antiseptics. In: Verstraete F J M, Lommer M J, Arzi B In: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Dogs and Cats. 2nd edn. Elsevier; St. Louis. pp 14-21. 
  • Reiter A M & Gracis M (2018) BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Dentistry and Oral Surgery. 4th ed. BSAVA; Gloucester. 
  • Fossum T (2018) Surgical infections and antibiotic selection. In: Small Animal Surgery. 5th edn. Elsevier; Philadelphia. pp 79-89.  
  • Southerden P, Reiter A M (2018) Management of periodontal disease. In: Reiter A M & Gracis M BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Dentistry and Oral Surgery. 4th edn. BSAVA; Gloucester. pp137-166. 
  • Reiter A M, Castejon-Gonzalez A (2018) Perioperative considerations in dentistry and oral surgery. In: Reiter AM & Gracis M BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Dentistry and Oral Surgery. 4th ed. BSAVA; Gloucester. pp 348-350. 
  • Bellows J (1999) The Practice of Veterinary Dentistry. Iowa State University Press.

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