ISSN 2398-2969      

Retrobulbar: neoplasia

icanis

Introduction

  • Cause: may be primary or secondary, benign or malignant.
  • Signs: usually exophthalmos (occasionally enophthalmos), strabismus, globe indentation, nictitans protrusion, difficulty or discomfort on opening mouth, red eye, restriction of globe retropulsion, unilateral nasal discharge/blockage.
  • Diagnosis: advanced imaging (CT/MRI), fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • Treatment: depends on tumor type. Surgical excision may occasionally be possible. Radiation therapy may be appropriate in some cases.
  • Prognosis: usually poor.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Pathophysiology

  • Many histopathological types of orbital tumor are possible.
  • Most orbital tumors are malignant.
  • Growth of orbital tumors associated with typical clinical signs as adjacent structures become affected.

Timecourse

  • Usually slowly growing over months.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Lederer K, Ludewig E, Hechinger H et al (2014) Differentiation between inflammatory and neoplasitc orbital conditions based on computed tomographic signs. Vet Ophthalmol 18 (4), 271-275 PubMed.
  • Armour M D, Broome M, Dell'anna G et al (2011) A review of orbital and intracranial magnetic resonance imaging in 79 canine and 13 feline patients (2004-2010). Vet Ophthalmol 14 (4), 221-226 PubMed.
  • Atali-Soussay K, Jegou J P, Clerc B (2001) Retrobulbar tumours in dogs and cats: 25 cases. Vet Ophthalmol 4 (1), 19-27 PubMed.
  • Dennis R (2000) Use of magnetic resonance imaging for the investigation of orbital disease in small animals. JSAP 41 (4), 145-155 PubMed.
  • Hendrix D V & Gelatt K N (2000) Diagnosis, treatment and outcome of orbital neoplasia in dogs: a retrospective study of 44 cases. JSAP 41 (3), 105-108 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Gould D & McLellan G (2014)BSAVA Manual of Small Animal Opthalmology.3rd edn.
  • Gelatt K N (2013)Veterinary Ophthalmology.5th edn. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

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