ISSN 2398-2969      

Oral squamous cell carcinoma: labial and lingual

icanis
Contributor(s):

Jane Dobson

Dick White


Introduction

  • Less common than the gingival form; mucosal surface of lip/cheek or tongue.
  • Signs: dysphagia, hypersalivation.
  • Lip/cheek may respond to wide local surgical resection; lingual more aggressive with very poor prognosis unless early recognition.
  • Treatment: for non-operable soft tissue masses, radiotherapy may offer a 50% survival at 1 year.
    The tongue has too narrow a therapeutic index for radiotherapy treatment.
  • Prognosis: soft tissue masses: 5-10% regional lymph node metastases; 3-36% distant metastases.
  • Lingual: overall metastatic rate of 37.5%.

Pathogenesis

Predisposing factors

General
  • Lingual - some relationship to white-coated animals.

Pathophysiology

  • Lingual and lip/cheek - route of spread via local lymph nodes → thoracic metastases.
  • Lingual - rostral site has improved prognosis over caudal location, where lymphatic drainage is denser and risk of metastatic spread higher.
  • Lingual - typically rapid extension and invasion into the tongue → full thickness involvement.
  • Lip/cheek commonly ulcerative rather than proliferative → less prompt to metastasize.
  • Primary tumor → local lymph node metastases → distant metastases, usually thoracic.
  • Lingual - recent attempt to grade histological features with clinical characteristics:
    • Grade 1 - relatively benign.
    • Grade 2 - aggressive surgery with or without chemotherapy.
    • Grade 3 - poor prognosis.

Timecourse

  • Lingual: owner median referral time - 1.5 months (10 cases).

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Withrow S J & MacEwen E G (1996)Small Animal Clinical Oncology. 2nd edition. Philadelphia: W B Saunders Co, ISBN 0 7216 5592 0 (Useful up-to-date reference; a starting point).
  • Slatter D (1993)Textbook of Small Animal Surgery.2nd edn. Philadelphia: W B Saunders Co, ISBN 0 7216 8329 0.
  • Volume II, section 16 - comprehensive section on all aspects of oncology, including radiotherapy.
  • White R A S (1990) In:The Manual of Small Animal Dentistry.Cheltenham: British Small Animal Veterinary Association. pp 101-112. (Affordable source, very readable).

Related Images

Want more related items, why not
contact us

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code